Electrode materials

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  • Introduction: The modern interest for phenomena at the semiconductor–electrolyte interface dates back to experiments performed in the 1950s with germanium, and has extended to most semiconducting materials for reasons of fundamental knowledge or potential application, going from semiconductor processing technology to heterogeneous photocatalysis to sensors. The subject is highly interdisciplinary and involves fields like electrochemistry, solid-state physics, and surface science.

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  • The eight chapters in this book cover topics on advanced anode and cathode materials, materials design, materials screening, electrode architectures, diagnostics and materials characterization, and electrode/electrolyte interface characterization for lithium batteries.

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  • Every day countless kilometres of steel pipelines are installed worldwide for the most varied civil and industrial uses. They form real networks comparable to a system of road networks, which, although not so obvious, are definitely much more intricate and carry fluids that have become essential for us. To comply with technical specifications and fulfil the necessary safety requisites, special materials and welding processes which have evolved with the sector have been developed in recent years.

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  • Plasticizers are used to increase the process-ability, flexibility, and durability of the material, and of course to reduce the cost in many cases. This edition covers introduction and applications of various types of plasticizers including those based on non-toxic and highly effective pyrrolidones, and a new source of Collagen based bio-plasticizers that can be obtained from discarded materials from a natural source; Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas).

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  • Some years ago a consortium of enterprises and a university from different European countries and industrial sectors was established to work together in the development of lighter lead–acid batteries for electrical and conventional vehicles with new innovative materials and process techniques, with the final goal of increasing the energy density by means of a battery weight reduction. Its main idea was to substitute the heavy lead alloy grids mechanical support of the active masses and collectors of the current produced during the charge and discharge reactions.

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  • Standard laboratory methods for measurement of soil nitrate (NO3–N) use various procedures and instruments to analyze soil samples taken from the field and transported to the laboratory. Concerns with these procedures range from delays in measurement time, the high cost of soil sampling and analysis, high labour requirements, and the need to aggregate samples. With recent advances in using the ion-selective electrode, as presented in this chapter, soil NO3–N can now be measured directly, rapidly, accurately, at low cost, at a fine scale, and in real-time right in the field....

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  • Conventional electrostatic capacitors contain a dielectric instead of an electrolyte solution. Electrochemical supercapacitors, however, contain a liquid electrolyte (aqueous, nonaqueous), and can be classified by the electrode material used (carbon, metal oxide, polymer) and the operating principle (double-layer capacitance, redox pseudocapacitance, hybrid capacitance).

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  • Introduction: Electrocrystallization refers to nucleation and crystal growth occurring on electrodes in electrochemical systems under the influence of an electric field. Nucleation and growth phenomena are involved in many battery systems, where the electron transfer is coupled to various phase transformations occurring during charge and/or discharge in the active electrode materials. For example, in the lead–acid battery the electrochemical reactions involve formation of different electronically conducting and insulating crystal phases (e.g.

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  • The effects of expanded graphite, carbon fibre, needle coke and polyacene, when used as positive electrode additives, on the PbO2 electrode behaviour of lead/acid batteries are studied. It is found that, during the initial stage of charge/discharge cycling, all of the additives are able to raise appreciably the coefficient of utilization of the positive active material. By contrast, they cause, to differing degrees, a reduction in service life when a certain nitrogenous heterocyclic compound (AS) is added to the positive active material. ...

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  • Sputtering is similar to vacuum deposition. In this method, an inert gas such as argon or helium is introduced into a chamber that contains anode and cathode electrodes supplied by an external high-voltage source. The anode contains the sample to be deposited on and the cathode contains the deposited material. The principle is that the high voltage ignites a plasma effect in the inert gas and the gas ions bombard the target containing the material to be deposited. When the kinetic energy of the bombarding ions is sufficiently high, some of the atoms from the target surface are freed and...

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  • Introduction In 1791, the first combination of metals in Volta’s battery involved zinc as the negative electrode. A zinc electrode was also used in subsequent Daniell, Grove, and Bunsen cells developed in the early nineteenth century. Those cells were strictly powered by zinc dissolution and cathodic hydrogen evolution.

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  • Introduction: The ceramic oxide known as ‘beta alumina’ exhibits remarkably high conductivity of sodium ions and, as a consequence, has been adopted as a key component in batteries that employ liquid sodium as the active material at the negative electrode. Most rechargeable (or ‘secondary’) batteries comprise solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. A separator is placed in the electrolyte between the plates to prevent a short circuit.

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  • The new edition of Principles of Electrochemistry has been considerably extended by a number of new sections, particularly dealing with 'electrochemical material science' (ion and electron conducting polymers, chemically modified electrodes), photoelectrochemistry, stochastic processes, new aspects of ion transfer across biological membranes, biosensors, etc. In view of this extension of the book we asked Dr Ladislav Kavan (the author of the section on non-electrochemical methods in the first edition) to contribute as a co-author discussing many of these topics.

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  • The study looked at the use of red lead in the manufacturing of valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) miners cap lamp (MCL) batteries that were made with either flat plate or tubular positive electrodes. A problem with using only grey oxide in the manufacture of thick flat plate or tubular electrodes is the poor conversion of the active material to the desired lead dioxide.

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  • The theoretical specific energy of the lead/acid battery is 176 W h kg−1 . The specific energy actually achieved depends on the discharge rate but is typically only about 15–25% of this maximum value. The major reason for the lead acid battery’s inability to obtain higher specific energies is that much of the active material in both the positive and negative electrode is not discharged.

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  • One of the subjects of Ni-MH batteries studies is justly the electrochemically active material for the positive electrode-hydroxide nickel. This hydroxide Ni(OH)2 has been prepared in laboratory by chemical sedimentation from NiCl2 and NaOH solutions. The obtained product has been examined using different techniques, such as X ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) and electrochemical polarisation (cyclic voltammetry CV). The obtained results of obtained Ni(OH)2 show -type crystal, with grains of about 15 µm.

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