The aim of this primer is to provide the reader with a self-contained,
introductory account of the science of electrochemistry. It seeks to
explain the origin of electrode potentials, show their link with chemical
thermodynamics and to indicate why their measurement is important in
chemistry. In so doing some ideas about solution non-ideality and how
ions move in solution are helpful, and essential diversions into these
topics are made in Chapters 2 and 3
The modern interest for phenomena at the semiconductor–electrolyte interface dates back to experiments performed in the 1950s with germanium, and has extended to most semiconducting materials for reasons of fundamental knowledge or potential application, going from semiconductor processing technology to heterogeneous photocatalysis to sensors. The subject is highly interdisciplinary and involves ﬁelds like electrochemistry, solid-state physics, and surface science.
An ion-selective electrode (ISE) is an example of an electrochemical sensor utilizing the principle of potentiometry, or measurement of the cell potential (i.e., ISE against a standard reference electrode) at near-zero current. Under these conditions, the boundary potential at the ISE–solution interface is governed by the laws of electrochemical thermodynamics or is compliant with the famous Nernst equation.
The cathodic reduction of nitrate and nitrite ions on a copper electrode in aqueous potassium chloride solutions was studied using cyclic voltammetry technique. The cyclic voltammograms showed that nitrate and nitrite ion reduction occurred in the 0.14 M KCl solution with peak potentials of -1.25 to -1.30 V and -1.20 to -1.25 V (Ag/AgCl) respectively.
Reference electrodes, liquid - junction potential, indicator electrodes,... As the main contents of the document "Chapter 6: Electrodes and Potentiometry". Invite you to consult the text book for more documents serving the academic needs and research.
Voltammetry techniques measure current as a
function of applied potential under conditions that
promote polarization of a working electrode. Polarography: Invented by J. Heyrovsky (Nobel
Prize 1959). Differs from voltammetry in that it
employs a dropping mercury electrode (DME) to
continuously renew the electrode surface. Amperometry: current proportional to analyte
concentration is monitored at a fixed potential
Substantial changes from the first English edition of this book (1993, Plenum Press,
New York) have been introduced in this second edition. The content was rearranged
such that all basic knowledge is contained in the first part of the book. This part
was rewritten and to some extent simplified and can be used as a textbook for
undergraduate students in electrochemistry and related branches. More advanced
topics that will be of interest for people at a postgraduate level can be found in the
(BQ) Part 2 book "Current practice of clinical electroencephalography" presents the following contents: Pediatric epilepsy syndromes, EEG in adult epilepsy, EEG voltage topography and dipole source modeling of epileptiform potentials, subdural electrode corticography, evoked potentials overview, neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring.
A good reference electrode must reach its potential quickly, be reproducible, and remain stable with time. It must have a practically nonpolarizable metal-solution interface; that is, its potential must not depart significantly from the equilibrium value on the passage of a small current across the interface. The potential of the junction between the electrolytes of the reference and test electrodes must be minimized. These criteria are detailed subsequently.
The term NEMCA refers to nonfaradaic electrochemical modiﬁcation of catalytic activity. The NEMCA effect is also known as electrochemical promotion or electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) or electropromotion. It is the effect observed on the rates and selectivities of catalytic reactions taking place on electronically conductive catalysts deposited on ionic (or mixed ionic–electronic) supports upon application of electric current or potential (typically 72 V) between the catalyst and a second (counter or auxiliary) electrode also deposited on the same support. ...
A lightning protection system is a system designed to protect a structure from damage due
to lightning strikes by intercepting such strikes and safely passing their extremely high voltage
currents to "ground". Most lightning protection systems include a network of lightning rods,
metal conductors, and ground electrodes designed to provide a low resistance path to ground for
During development of an undivided ﬂow battery based on the Pb(II)/Pb and PbO2 /Pb(II) couples in aqueous methanesulfonic acid, it was noted that battery performance might be improved by additives that (i) decrease the roughness of the lead deposit at the negative electrode and (ii) enhance the kinetics of the Pb(II)/PbO2 couple at the positive electrode. This paper reports the study of sodium ligninsulfonate and polyethylene glycol as potential levelling agents for lead and of three inorganic ions as possible catalysts for the Pb(II)/PbO2 couple. ...
Electrostatic problems in free space involve finding the electric fields and the potential distributions of given arrangements of electrodes. Strictly speaking free space�� means vacuum but the properties of air and other gases are usually indistinguishable from those of vacuum so it is permissible to include them in this section.
The historical route to present-day patch clamping started with the
scientific recognition that electrical phenomena are part of animal physiology.
This bioelectricity was demonstrated in the nineteenth century in
frogs, where muscle movements could be evoked by applying electrical
stimuli to the animal. The recording of inherent electrical activity can be
charted by the development of increasingly sophisticated electrodes.
Magnetotelluric surveys (soundings) are a naturalsource
electromagnetic (EM) geophysical method
that utilizes variations in the Earth’s magnetic field
to image subsurface structures. A magnetotelluric
sounding was attempted at Weyburn but has not
produced results. Consequently, a final assessment
of its utility is not available (Monea et al., 2008).
Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a
technique of imaging subsurface electrical
conductivity. When deployed in time-lapse mode,
it is capable of detecting conductivity changes
caused by the injection of CO2.
Kumagai et al. AMB Express 2011, 1:23 http://www.amb-express.com/content/1/1/23
Sensitivity to electrical stimulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and MAGIC-5 cells
Etsuko Kumagai1*, Masato Tominaga2 and Shinji Harada3
Abstract To determine the sensitivities to low electrical potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and its target cells, HIV-1 and MAGIC-5 cells were directly stimulated with a constant direct current potential of 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl).
Chemical structure of -aminonaphthalene (ANa) allows to deal with its electrochemical polymerisation, analogously as for aniline. To determine the oxidation potentials of ANa, the polymerisation has been realised on Pt electrode using cyclic polarisation. It was found that in sulphuric acid 0.5 M the first oxidation starts at 620 mV/SCE with the peak potential at 760 mV, and the second oxidation at 890 mV/SCE with the peak potential at 1230 mV. The PANa film development decreases the current peaks meaning a reduction of polymerisation rate.
Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography (MEKC) was employed to the analysis of aniline, phenol and 2,5-dinitrophenol using an end-column amperometric detector with a carbon cloth electrode. The current condition of separation is a solution of 25 mM Na2HPO4, 25 mM Na2B4O7, and 50 mM SDS (pH 9.11); applied voltage, 10 kV; hydrodynamic injection for 15 s at 15 cm; applied potential for electrochemical detection, 500 mV. Absorbance electropherograms is also recorded for comparison.