An ion-selective electrode (ISE) is an example of an electrochemical sensor utilizing the principle of potentiometry, or measurement of the cell potential (i.e., ISE against a standard reference electrode) at near-zero current. Under these conditions, the boundary potential at the ISE–solution interface is governed by the laws of electrochemical thermodynamics or is compliant with the famous Nernst equation.
Most electrochemical reactions take place at the interface of two or more phases. Hence the area of reaction plays a vital role in determining the efﬁciency of an electrochemical process, just like in any surface reaction. There are several ways to increase the available area for reaction in an electrochemical cell: multiple electrodes are stacked alternatively, bipolar electrodes are used, and, sometimes, the reaction surface is modiﬁed by etching or coating with large surface area particles. ...
The aim of this primer is to provide the reader with a self-contained,
introductory account of the science of electrochemistry. It seeks to
explain the origin of electrode potentials, show their link with chemical
thermodynamics and to indicate why their measurement is important in
chemistry. In so doing some ideas about solution non-ideality and how
ions move in solution are helpful, and essential diversions into these
topics are made in Chapters 2 and 3
The cathodic reduction of nitrate and nitrite ions on a copper electrode in aqueous potassium chloride solutions was studied using cyclic voltammetry technique. The cyclic voltammograms showed that nitrate and nitrite ion reduction occurred in the 0.14 M KCl solution with peak potentials of -1.25 to -1.30 V and -1.20 to -1.25 V (Ag/AgCl) respectively.
Bismuth film electrode (BiFE) of less environmentally concern was developed to determine blood lead by differential pulse - anodic stripping voltammetry (DP-ASV). The lead determination gained high precision (RSD < 4.5%, n = 2) and low detection limit (0.7 ppb), that were not worse than those on mercury film electrode (MFE). The acurracy of the lead dertermination (recovery 98 – 100.6%) was good agreement with GF-AAS determination (p > 0.05).
Reference electrodes, liquid - junction potential, indicator electrodes,... As the main contents of the document "Chapter 6: Electrodes and Potentiometry". Invite you to consult the text book for more documents serving the academic needs and research.
(BQ) In the present study an analysis has been done to
evaluate the electrode wear along the cross-section of an
electrode compared to the same along its length during
EDM of aluminum and mild steel using copper and brass
(BQ) Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a widespread process which works very effectively in machining of difficult-to-cut materials and alloys in die and aerospace industries with high dimensional accuracies. However, this capability could be deteriorated due to electrode wear leading to
decrease of process productivity. In this study, the effect of machining parameters of EDM process including on-time, current, voltage, the engaging time between workpiece and electrode, and pre-EDM roughing on electrode wear were experimentally investigated.
(BQ) This paper describes the heat source diameter of single pulse discharge in electrical discharge machining. To observe the discharge plasma, SiC and Ga2O3 single crystals were used as the electrode material since they are optically transparent and electrically conductive. It was found that plasma diameter expands within a few microseconds after dielectric breakdown and the plasma diameter is much larger than the discharge crater.
(BQ) One of the most significant problems of electrical discharge machining (EDM) is electrode wear, which
results in shape errors and low productivity. In this study, a new EDM method using a strip electrode (strip
EDM) was developed in order to overcome the wear problem.
(BQ) In this study, the effect of machining parameters of EDM process including on-time, current, voltage, the engaging
time between workpiece and electrode, and pre-EDM roughing on electrode wear were experimentally investigated. Main effects of factors and interactions were considered in this paper and regression equation was derived. A L50 (21 × 511) Taguchi’s standard orthogonal array was employed as experimental design. Copper was used as electrode to machine the hot work tool steel 1.2714, which is widely used to make forging dies and mandrels.
Every day countless kilometres of steel pipelines are installed
worldwide for the most varied civil and industrial uses.
They form real networks comparable to a system of road networks,
which, although not so obvious, are definitely much more intricate and
carry fluids that have become essential for us.
To comply with technical specifications and fulfil the necessary safety
requisites, special materials and welding processes which have
evolved with the sector have been developed in recent years.
Primary chemically formed lead dioxide (PbO2 ) was used as positive electrode in preparation of lead–acid bipolar batteries. Chemical oxidation was carried out by both mixing and dipping methods using an optimized amount of ammonium persulfate as a suitable oxidizing agent. Xray diffraction studies showed that the weight ratio of -PbO2 to -PbO2 is more for mixing method before electrochemical forming.
The modern interest for phenomena at the semiconductor–electrolyte interface dates back to experiments performed in the 1950s with germanium, and has extended to most semiconducting materials for reasons of fundamental knowledge or potential application, going from semiconductor processing technology to heterogeneous photocatalysis to sensors. The subject is highly interdisciplinary and involves ﬁelds like electrochemistry, solid-state physics, and surface science.
This study investigated the effects of Na 2 SO4 additive in the positive electrode on the performance of sealed lead-acid cells. The additive Na 2 SO4 in the cured plates can reduce the 4BS crystal size, which produces a smaller a-PbO 2 and b-PbO 2 crystal size in the formed plates, which will have a larger surface area. The plate’s chemical composition is independent of the amount of Na 2 SO4 additive in the positive electrodes. Plate composition relies only on the cure temperature conditions. ...
The worldwide thirst for portable consumer electronics in the 1990s has had enormous impact on the ﬁeld of portable power sources. During this era, lithium-ion batteries, which are based on having lithium ions shuttle between an insertion cathode and an insertion anode, emerged as the rechargeable power source for several lucrative portable electronics markets, including laptops and cell phones.
The eight chapters in this book cover topics on advanced anode and cathode materials, materials design, materials screening, electrode architectures, diagnostics and materials characterization, and electrode/electrolyte interface characterization for lithium batteries.
The book "Developments in Electrochemistry" contains five feature articles in recent advanced electrochemistry. These selected feature articles emphasize physical phenomena rather than mathematical formalisms of electrochemistry.
A major disadvantage of the lead/acid battery is the decrease in voltage during operation which makes it unsuitable for systems sensitive to voltage fluctuations. Additives like BaSO4 or SrSO4, which are isomorphous to PbSO4, have been used to overcome this problem. Phosphoric acid and the various phosphates have long been used to improve the performance of the positive electrode of the battery. A beneficial effect of phosphoric acid is to inhibit the rate of the self-discharge reaction of the positive electrode in the lead/acid battery. ...