Electromagnetic radiation

The study of electromagnetic radiation (EM) can be divided into two distinct areas: full solution of Maxwell's Equations relevant to the specific boundary conditions in a special general case and into application of EM radiation that results in modern life e.g. medicine, telecommunication, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) etc. The reader should have a specific scientific background and must be familiar with the fundamental ideas of EM theory for the first area. Basic understanding of applying the radiation techniques in modern life is needed for the second.
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Gamma rays were discovered by Villard more than a hundred years ago. Rutherford gave the name rays to the electrically neutral radiation emitted by the naturally occurring radioactive materials. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, photons, which arises due to energy changes in the nucleus. It does not appear as an independent form of radiation, but it follows and β decay, in those cases when the newly created core of the offspring is found in the excited state.
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This book is designed for a onesemester course on Nano and Microelectromechanical Systems or Nano and Microengineering. A typical background needed includes calculus, electromagnetics, and physics. The purpose of this book is to bring together in one place the various methods, techniques, and technologies that students and engineers need in solving a wide array of engineering problems in formulation, modeling, analysis, design, and optimization of highperformance microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS).
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According to classical physics the particle cannot be a wave, and the wave cannot be a particle. However, Einstein, while explaining the photoelectric effect (PEE), postulated that electromagnetic radiation has a dual waveparticle nature. He used the term photon to refer to the particle of electromagnetic radiation. He proposed a simple equation to relate the energy of the photon E to the frequency n and wavelength l of electromagnetic wave.
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Radiation Hazard (RADHAZ) describes the hazards of electromagnetic radiation to fuels, electronic hardware, ordnance, and personnel. In the military these hazards are segregated as follows:
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Solar energy is defined as that radiant energy transmitted by the sun and intercepted by earth. It is transmitted through space to earth by electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging between 0.20 and 15 microns.
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The Advanced Signal Processing Handbook: Theory and Implementation for Radar, Sonar, and Medical Imaging RealTime Systems Stergios Stergiopoulos The Transform and Data Compression Handbook K.R. Rao and P.C.
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Light is an electromagnetic wave phenomenon described by the same theoretical principles that govern all forms of electromagnetic radiation.
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The wireless era was started by two European scientists, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. In 1864, Maxwell presented Maxwell's equations by unifying the works of Lorentz, Faraday, Ampere, and Gauss. He predicted the propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space at the speed of light. He postulated that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon of a particular wavelength and predicted that radiation would occur at other wavelengths as well. His theory was not well accepted until 20 years later, after Hertz validated the electromagnetic wave (wireless) propagation.
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The objective of this manual is to improve the international exchange of scientific information. The recommendations made to achieve this end come under three general headings. The first is the use of quantity calculus for handling physical quantities, and the general rules for the symbolism of quantities and units, described in chapter 1. The second is the use of internationally agreed symbols for the most frequently used quantities, described in chapter 2.
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Modern Spectroscopy has been written to fulfil a need for an uptodate text on spectroscopy. It is aimed primarily at a typical undergraduate audience in chemistry, chemical physics, or physics in the United Kingdom and at undergraduate and graduate student audiences elsewhere. Spectroscopy covers a very wide area which has been widened further since the mid 1960s by the development of lasers and such techniques as photoelectron spectroscopy and other closely related spectroscopies.
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Wavelets in Scattering and Radiation In this chapter we examine scattering from 2D grooves using standard Coiﬂets, scattering from 2D and 3D objects, scattering and radiation of curved wire antennas, and scatterers employing Coifman intervallic wavelets. We provide the error estimate and convergence rate of the singlepoint quadrature formula based on Coifman scalets. We also introduce the smooth local cosine (SLC), which is referred to as the Malvar wavelet [1], as an alternative to the intervallic wavelets in handling bounded intervals. 7.
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The Handbook of Spectroscopy is intended to serve as an authoritative reference source for a broad audience involved in the research, teaching, learning, and practice of spectroscopic technologies. Spectroscopy is defined as the science that deals with interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter.
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In this book, the performance characteristics of distributed feedback semiconductor laser diodes and optical tunable ﬁlters based on DFB laser structures have been investigated. As discussed in Chapter 1, these lasers can be used as optical sources and local oscillators in coherent optical communication networks, in which a stable single mode (in both the transverse plane and the longitudinal direction) and narrow spectral linewidth become crucial.
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Light Sources and Detectors The most important ‘hardware’ in optical metrology is light sources and detectors. To appreciate the various concepts of these devices, we ﬁrst introduce the different units and terms for the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. Then the laser is given a relatively comprehensive treatment. The description of detectors involves some understanding of semiconductor technology. Therefore a brief introduction to semiconductors is given in Appendix E.
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Wavelets in Boundary Integral Equations Numerical treatment of integral equations can be found in classic books [1, 2]. In this chapter the integral equations obtained from ﬁeld analysis of electromagnetic wave scattering, radiating, and guiding problems are solved by the wavelet expansion method [3–7]. The integral equations are converted into a system of linear algebraic equations. The subsectional bases, namely the pulses or piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) modes, are replaced by a set of orthogonal wavelets.
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Sampling Biorthogonal Time Domain Method (SBTD) The ﬁnite difference time domain (FDTD) method was proposed by K. Yee [1] in 1966. The simplicity of the FDTD method in mathematics has proved to be its great advantage. The method does not involve any integral equations, Green’s functions, singularities, nor matrix equations. Neither does it involve functional or variational principles. In addition the FDTD proves to be versatile when used in complicated geometries.
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Radiation from Apertures Các lĩnh vực bức xạ từ ăngten khẩu độ, chẳng hạn như khe cắm, mở ống dẫn sóng, sừng, phản xạ và ăngten ống kính, được xác định từ các kiến thức về các lĩnh vực so với độ mở ống kính của ăng ten. Các trường độ mở ống kính trở thành nguồn của các lĩnh vực bức xạ ở những khoảng cách lớn.
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In this book, a wide range of different topics related to analytical as well as numerical solutions of problems related to scattering, propagation, radiation, and emission in different medium are discussed. Design of several devices and their measurements aspects are introduced. Topics related to microwave region as well as Terahertz and quasioptical region are considered. Biisotropic metamaterial in optical region is investigated.
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Before we can talk about solar power, we need to talk about the sun • Need to know how much sunlight is available • Can predict where the sun is at any time • Insolation : incident solar radiation • Want to determine the average daily insolation at a site • Want to be able to chose effective locations and panel tilts of solar panels
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