A major topic in this book is the study of propagation and scattering
of waves by randomly distributed particles. We first consider scattering by a
single particle. This chapter and the next discuss and derive the scattering
characteristics of a single particle. Both exact and solutions are studied.
Scattering by a single ...
This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its
applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental
physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and
scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization,
electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures
and waveguide components, and finally, the biological effects and medical
applications of electromagnetic fields....
Light is just one portion of the various electromagnetic waves flying
through space. The electromagnetic spectrum covers an extremely broad range,
from radio waves with wavelengths of a meter or more, down to x-rays with
wavelengths of less than a billionth of a meter. Optical radiation lies between
radio waves and x-rays on the spectrum, exhibiting a unique mix of ray, wave,
and quantum properties.
The wireless era was started by two European scientists, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. In 1864, Maxwell presented Maxwell's equations by unifying the works of Lorentz, Faraday, Ampere, and Gauss. He predicted the propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space at the speed of light. He postulated that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon of a particular wavelength and predicted that radiation would occur at other wavelengths as well. His theory was not well accepted until 20 years later, after Hertz validated the electromagnetic wave (wireless) propagation.
Document "The Mathematical Theory of Maxwell’s Equations" give you the knowledge: The Variational Expansion into Wave Functions, Scattering From a Perfect Conductor, Approach to the Cavity Problem, Boundary Integral Equation Methods for Lipschitz Domains,...
BRIEF HISTORY OF RF AND MICROWAVE WIRELESS SYSTEMS
The wireless era was started by two European scientists, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. In 1864, Maxwell presented Maxwell's equations by unifying the works of Lorentz, Faraday, Ampere, and Gauss. He predicted the propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space at the speed of light. He postulated that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon of a particular wavelength and predicted that radiation would occur at other wavelengths as well.
In the nineteenth century, scientists, mathematician, engineers and innovators started
investigating electromagnetism. The theory that underpins wireless communications was
formed by Maxwell. Early demonstrations took place by Hertz, Tesla and others. Marconi
demonstrated the first wireless transmission. Since then, the range of applications has
expanded at an immense rate, together with the underpinning technology. The rate of
development has been incredible and today the level of technical and commercial maturity
is very high.
It has been known from the previous chapter that light, and in general,
electromagnetic waves have particle behavior. Some latter time than the quantum theory of light, it was discovered
that particles show also wavelike behavior.
The wave-particle duality of matter is the fundamental concept of
Newton’s classical physics should be replaced by the new mechanics
which is able to describe the wave nature of particles
Wireless networks, as the name suggests, utilize wireless transmission for exchange of information. The exact form of wireless transmission can vary. For example, most people are accustomed to using remote control devices that employ infrared transmission. However, the dominant form of wireless transmission is radio-based transmission. Radio technology is not new, it has a history of over a century and its basic principles remain the same with those in its early stage of development. In order to explain wireless transmission, an explanation of electromagnetic wave propagation must be given.
The purpose of this monograph is to formulate a quantitative and self-consistent theoretical
approach to wave–particle interactions occurring in space plasmas, and present
a logical development of the subject. In the Earth’s magnetosphere, Nature has given
us a plasma laboratory that is accessible to observations made by radio, magnetic and
electric instruments on the ground, and a great variety of instruments aboard rockets
and Earth-orbiting satellites. Spacecraft are making similar observations in the more
distant solar system.
This chapter provides the basis for the discussion in the following chapters by summarizing the fundamental concepts and the quantum theory concerning the interaction between electrons and photons in a form that is convenient for theoretical analysis of semiconductor lasers [1–9]. First, quantization of electromagnetic fields of optical waves is outlined, and the concept of a photon is clarified. Quantum theory expressions for coherent states are also given. Then the quantum theory of electron–photon interactions and the general characteristics of optical transitions are explained. ...
Before entering into the different techniques of optical metrology some basic terms and deﬁnitions have to be established. Optical metrology is about light and therefore we must develop a mathematical description of waves and wave propagation, introducing important terms like wavelength, phase, phase fronts, rays, etc. The treatment is kept as simple as possible, without going into complicated electromagnetic theory.