This chapter provides the basis for the discussion in the following chapters by summarizing the fundamental concepts and the quantum theory concerning the interaction between electrons and photons in a form that is convenient for theoretical analysis of semiconductor lasers [1–9]. First, quantization of electromagnetic fields of optical waves is outlined, and the concept of a photon is clarified. Quantum theory expressions for coherent states are also given. Then the quantum theory of electron–photon interactions and the general characteristics of optical transitions are explained. ...
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a technique where the electron-beam is
transmitted through an ultra-thin specimen, interacting with specimen as it passes
through it. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons transmitted
through the specimen, which is then magnified and focused onto an imaging device,
such as a fluorescent screen, a photographic film, or a charge-coupled device (CCD)
sensor. This technique is capable of imaging at significantly high resolution than the
light microscopes, owing to the small de-Broglie wavelength of electrons....
I like playing around with words and letters. You probably know that
LASER is an artificial word derived from “Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation”. When starting my lecture on “Laser–Tissue Interactions”
I tend to write this derivation on the board. I continue with “LIGHT:
Lasers Irradiate Germinated and Healthy Tissues”.
Why? Lasers cut everything, if appropriate laser parameters are selected.
There is no shield around healthy tissue. And there is no laser that fits all sizes
as some clothes do. Lasers never have been some kind of wonder instruments.
partial charges. When a hydrogen atom bearing a partial positive charge bridges two atoms bearing a partial negative charge, a hydrogen bond is created. A van der Waals’ bond (B) is formed between apolar molecular groups that have come into close proximity. Spontaneous transient distortion of electron clouds (momentary faint dipole, !!) may induce an opposite dipole in the neighboring molecule. The van der Waals’ bond, therefore, is a form of electrostatic attraction, albeit of very low strength (inversely proportional to the seventh power of the distance).
– Allows users to send electronic mail – Discussion groups, newsgroups, bulletin boards – Databases, library catalogs, and electronic journals – Software protocol for transferring files – Software protocol for transferring hypertext language files – Computer system for transferring files between computers – Document retrieval system used to search for Information – Use of keywords in databases to retrieve full text information – Sound, graphic images, video, and hypertext on single pages...
E-commerce provides immense capability for connectivity through buying and selling activities all over the world. During the last two decades new concepts of business have evolved due to popularity of the Internet, providing new business opportunities for commercial organisations and they are being further influenced by user activities of newer applications of the Internet. Business transactions are made possible through a combination of secure data processing, networking technologies and interactivity functions....
The objective of this work was to support the design of mechatronic systems by the use of simulations. This raises the question of what exactly is mechatronics. Current definitions describe mechatronics as an interaction between electronics, mechanics and information technology, see Isermann  or Wallaschek . It makes no difference here whether we are talking about macromechanics or micromechanics.In the former case we speak of mechatronics, in the latter of micromechatronics or microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)....
The next chapter describes how a conventional model of ocean-atmosphere interaction
can be modified to include the free convection within the air and the swell of the
ocean. These effects become particularly important for low wind velocities, where the
standard Charnock wind stress formula leads to a singularity. The article should be of
particular interest to readers who are familiar with standard turbulence modeling, and
it is important to weather modeling.
The first application in Section 3, bone healing, may be surprising as a fluid mechanics
topic. One generally thinks of bone as a solid material, but much of the bone content is
fluid. Fluid mechanics therefore plays an important role in the analysis, and the results
depend on the choice of the constitutive equation.
Undergraduate biomedical engineering programs and curricula are being rapidly
developed across the United States. We perceive a correspondingly increasing
need for biomedical engineering textbooks specifically designed for undergraduate
readers. Many educators have come to appreciate that physiology and
biology are not narrow, specialized applications to be ‘‘tacked onto’’ an engineering
curriculum, but are instead rich subjects that can naturally elicit and
benefit from the kinds of creative problem-solving and quantitative analyses
that are hallmarks of engineering.
Sales of herbal products have increased dramatically over the past five years. Unfortunately, the
knowledge base devoted to the adverse effects of these products has not grown in proportion to their
increased usage. Data of questionable accuracy, often designed to sell products rather than to provide
objective information, can be found in the print and electronic media, most notably on the Internet.
Even in medical journals, misleading information about the beneficial and adverse effects of herbs can
I have my students to thank for this book. Regardless of ability, each has had
a role to play. The more able students have always helped, through their project
work, to develop new ideas and solutions in electronic design. Some have
displayed an astonishing instinctive understanding of engineering ideas, and
some have been so keen to learn as to make teaching easy and rewarding.
There is never enough time to give each individual student the time and help
IS THE ENGINEERING SCIENCE that deals with studying, defining, and mathematically
quantifying “interactions” that take place among “things” in our universe. Our
ability to perceive the physical manifestation of such interactions is embedded in the concept
and the “things” that transmit forces among themselves are classified for purposes of analysis
or some combination of the two.
Decision theory in economics, psychology, philosophy, mathematics, and statistics is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. It is closely related to the field of game theory as to interactions of agents with at least partially conflicting interests whose decisions affect each other.
The financial statements of Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (the ‘Parent Company')
are included in the statements of the Philips Group. The unconsolidated statements of
income of Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. therefore reflect only the net after-tax
income from affiliated companies and other income after taxes.
The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
Presentation balance sheet and income statement
In 1997, the Company changed the format of its consolidated balance sheet presentation.
Electronic formats such as HTML, XML, and XBRL are open standards
define or “tag” data using standard definitions. The tags establish a consistent structure
of identity and context. This consistent structure can be recognized and processed by a
variety of different software applications. In the case of HTML, the standardized tags
enable Web browsers to present Web sites’ embedded text and information in a
This book presents basic and advanced principles underlying the multivalent
interactions that are prevalent in biological systems. To illustrate important or
complex concepts, the book provides up-to-date examples of synthetic multivalent
molecules, their design, and their biological benefits. Functional roles
displayed by such molecules of both natural and synthetic origin are well
documented in biology, where they exert unique and crucial activities at a
level not readily achievable by monovalent molecules.
Welcome to the EXPRESS YOURSELF online course! This 6 part course is designed to make you understand and apply excellent communication skills in all of your day to day interactions with others. I recommend that you read, understand and then put into practise what you learn each week. You will certainly become a better communicator come the end of the course! Ready? Okay, let’s go for it!
Communication is so vital to everything that anyone does because we are usually required to seek solutions, information and help from others.
Deviations from Beer’s law (i.e. deviations from the
linearity of absorbance vs. concentration):
– Intermolecular interactions at higher concentrations
– Chemical reactions (species having different spectra)
– Peak width/polychromatic radiation
Beer’s law is only strictly valid with single-frequency radiation
Not significant if the bandwidth of the monochromator is less
than 1/10 of the half-width of the absorption peak at halfheight.