What is VHDL?
VHDL is the VHSIC Hardware Description Language. VHSIC is an abbreviation for Very High Speed Integrated Circuit. It can describe the behavior and structure of electronic systems, but is particularly suited as a language to describe the structure and behavior of digital electronic hardware designs, such as ASICs and FPGAs as well as conventional digital circuits. VHDL is a notation, and is precisely and completely defined by the Language Reference Manual (LRM).
Electronics may be defined as the science and technology of
electronic devices and systems.Electronic devices are primarily non-linear devices such as
diodes and transistors and in general integrated circuits (ICs) in
which small signals (voltages and currents) are applied to them.
Of course, electronic systems may include resistors, capacitors
and inductors as well.
The field of industrial electronics covers a plethora of problems that must be solved in industrial practice.
Electronic systems control many processes that begin with the control of relatively simple devices like
electric motors, through more complicated devices such as robots, to the control of entire fabrication
processes. An industrial electronics engineer deals with many physical phenomena as well as the sensors
that are used to measure them.
Some basic concepts of analogue signals are introduced in this section. You will learn the basic functions of an analogue electronic system, viz. transformation and generation of signals of continuous nature. Here, signal transformation refers to all kinds of manipulation such as filtering (selecting signals of a certain range of frequencies) and amplification (enlarging the magnitude of a signal). Signal generation in the context of analogue electronics can be taken to mean the construction of a signal with a specified waveform, as in the case of a sinusoidal wave generator.
The first electronic device to be introduced is called the diode. It is the simplest ofsemiconductor devices but plays a very vital role in electronic systems, having char-acteristics that closely match those of a simple switch. It will appear in a range of ap-plications, extending from the simple to the very complex.
Automobile electrical and electronic systems to explain their detailed operation. The intention is to describe briefly how the circuits work and, more importantly, how and where they may be utilized in vehicle applications. The circuits described are examples of those used and many pure electronics books are available for further details. Overall, an understanding of basic electronic principles will help to show how electronic control units work, ranging from a simple interior light delay unit, to the most complicated engine management system.
This textbook provides a thorough coverage of basic
electrical and electronic theory at a level which is
easily understood by the student who does not have a
knowledge of advanced mathematics. Following the
chapters explaining fundamental theory, the applications
to electrical and electronic systems are described.
Although a detailed study of advanced electronic
systems is beyond the scope of the text, the last
several chapters are devoted to descriptions of many
of these systems as installed in modern aircraft and
The ATmega16 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC
architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega16 achieves
throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption
versus processing speed.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: On the direct insulator-quantum Hall transition in two-dimensional electron systems in the vicinity of nanoscaled scatterers
Feedback is an integral part of our lives. Try touching your ﬁngertips with your eyes closed; you may not succeed the ﬁrst time because you have broken a feedback loop that ordinarily “regulates” your motions. The regulatory role of feedback manifests itself in biological, mechanical, and electronic systems, allowing precise realization of “functions.” For example, an ampliﬁer targeting a precise gain of 2.00 is designed much more easily with feedback than without.
A control system is a collection of components working together under the direction of
some machine intelligence. In most cases, electronic circuits provide the intelligence,
and electromechanical components such as sensors and motors provide the interface to
the physical world. A good example is the modern automobile. Various sensors supply
the on-board computer with information about the engine’s condition. The computer
then calculates the precise amount of fuel to be injected into the engine and adjusts the
ignition timing. T...
Power electronics is the technology of processing and controlling the flow of electric energy
by supplying voltages and currents in a form that is optimally suited to the end-user’s
requirements .Atypical block diagram is given in Figure 1.1 . The input power can be
either AC and DC sources. A general example is one in which the AC input power is from
the electric utility. The output power to the load can be either AC and DC voltages. The
power processor in the block diagram is usually called a converter. Conversion technologies
are used to construct converters.
semiconductors.In the first category are substances which provide an easy path for an electric current. All metals are conductors, however some metals do not conduct well. Manganin, for example, is a poor conductor. Copper is a good conductor, therefore it is widely used for cables. A non-metal which conducts well is carbon. Salt water is an example of a liquid conductor.
A material which does not easily release electrons is called an insulator. Rubber, nylon, porcelain and air are all insulator. There are no perfect insulators.
The purpose of Power Electronics Handbook is to provide a
reference that is both concise and useful for engineering
students and practicing professionals. It is designed to cover
a wide range of topics that make up the field of power
electronics in a well-organized and highly informative
manner. The Handbook is a careful blend of both traditional
topics and new advancements. Special emphasis is placed on
practical applications, thus, this Handbook is not a theoretical
one, but an enlightening presentation of the usefulness of the
rapidly growing field of power electronics.
Telecommunications (in European languages derived from the Greek tele means far communicare of Latin and means notice) described in a general way all forms of information exchange through a certain distance without having to carry this information to a specific way (eg mail). The visible signal was used in the 18th century as the expression system of the letters by hand or two flags placed in a certain position (semaphore) or optical machine press (heliograph) is an instrument communication by reflecting sunlight.
What is a computer?
A computer may be defined as a machine which accepts data from an input device, processes it
by performing arithmetical and logic operations in accordance with a program of instructions and
returns the results through an output unit.
A computer is basically an electronic machine operating on current.
Power flow solutions are needed in both for planning and operation studies.
Power flow studies for three phases balanced power system can be carried out using
very efficient methods. Power flow analysis for certain type of power system
network can be carried on by using several software that already been develop
without manual calculation on this time. One of the software is MATLAB with its
toolbox: Power System Analysis Toolbox. This software also uses numerical
methods to do power flow analysis like Newton-Raphson and its modified form, Fast
PSAT is a Matlab toolbox for static and dynamic analysis and control of electric power systems. The PSAT project began in September 2001, while I was a Ph.D. candidate at the Universit´ degli Studi di Genova, Italy. The ﬁrst public a version date back to November 2002, when I was a Visiting Scholar at the University of Waterloo, Canada. I am currently maintaining PSAT in the spare time, while I am working as associate professor at the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain. PSAT is provided free of charge, in the hope it can be useful and other people...