Particle physics today is one of the leading edge of modern physics. This document provides the reader with information about the world of particle physics has been discovered. From the classification of elementary particles to the interaction between them, from the electromagnetic interaction to strong interaction and weak interaction. Hopefully this document will meet the needs of you spend a lot of interest for fundamental particles.
The principal charge to the Committee on Elementary Particle Physics in the
21st Century was to recommend priorities for the U.S. particle physics
program for the next 15 years. Described in the Executive Summary and
more fully presented in the Overview, the committee’s considered response is laid
out in detail in the main text of this report, which begins by discussing the scientific
challenges in particle physics and conveying the current status of the U.S.
program and then presents the committee’s consensus on the best way to sustain a
competitive and globally relevant U.S.
In physics, particles that cannot be broken down into any other particles are called elementary particles. The term elementary particles also is used more loosely to include some subatomic particles that are composed of other particles. Particles that cannot be broken further are sometimes called fundamental particles to avoid confusion. These fundamental particles provide the basic units that make up all matter and energy in the universe. Scientists and philosophers have sought to identify and study elementary particles since ancient times. ...
Hạt cơ bản (Elementary particle) là những hạt vật chất được coi là nhỏ nhất cấu tạo nên vũ trụ, gồm cả các hạt trực tiếp cấu thành vật chất và những hạt truyền tương tác. Thế nào là hạt nhỏ nhất? Đó là các hạt phải đạt yêu cầu cơ bản là không thể phân chia thêm. Giống như xây một ngôi nhà bằng các viên gạch thì các viên gạch được coi là cơ bản, không ai ghép các mẩu nhỏ hơn không phải gạch để thành gạch cả. Bạn có thể nói bạn sẽ đập vỡ...
This book is intended as a general introduction to modern physics for science and
engineering students. It is written at a level which presurnes a prior tull year’s
course in classical physics, and a knowledge of elementary differential and
The material discussed here includes probability, relativity, quantum mechanics,
atomic physics, statistical mechanics, nuclear physics and elementary
¾ With the modern knowledge about the structure of matter
we know that electric charges come from elementary
particles: negatively charged electron and positively charged
proton. In nuclei there are also neutron with no charge.
Interaction between charges: two positive charges or two
negative charges repel each other. A positive charge and a
negative charge attract each other. This interaction is called the
static electric interaction.
The atomic theory of matter asserts that material bodies are made up of small
particles. This theory was founded in ancient times by Democritus and
expressed in poetic form by Lucretius. This view was challenged by the
opposite theory, according to which matter is a continuous expanse.
The development of quantum mechanics has taken physics in a vastly new direction from that of classical physics from the very start. In fact, there continue at present to be many developments in the subject of a very fundamental nature, such as implications for the foundations of physics, physics of entanglement, geometric phases, gravity and cosmology and elementary particles as well. It is hoped the papers in this volume will provide a much needed resource for researchers with regard to current topics of research in this growing area....
Next, a few words about our strategy. It is well recognized now that one has to go beyond
the Einstein-Hilbert action for gravity, both from the experimental viewpoint (eg.,because of
Dark Energy) and from the theoretical viewpoint (eg., because of the UV incompleteness
of quantized Einstein gravity, and the need of its uniﬁcation with the Standard Model of
In our approach, the origin of inﬂation is purely geometrical, ie. is closely related to
space-time and gravity.
Semiconductor nanostructures are currently one of the largest and most exciting
areas in solid state physics. Low-dimensional electron systems (realized in
semiconductor quantum structures) are particularly appealing because they
allow one to study many-particle effects in reduced dimensions. Inelastic light
scattering gives direct access to the elementary excitations of those systems.
The textbook written by Paul Davies in 19891 entitled, The New Physics,
commenced with the following opinion.
Many elderly scientists look back nostalgically at the first 30 years
of the 20th century, and refer to it as the golden age of physics.
Historians, however, may come to regard those years as the
dawning of the New Physics. The events which the quantum and
relativity theories set in train are only now impinging on science,
and many physicists believe that the golden age was only the
beginning of the revolution....
Almost since their inception, the natural sciences, those fields that use the scientific
method to study nature, have been divided into two branches: the biological
sciences and the physical sciences. In part, this division can be viewed as a convenient
social contrivance. However, over time it has also served more functional
purposes. Physical scientists, when seeking the fundamental laws, have found it
necessary to focus on the simplest of systems—elementary particles, atoms, and
molecules—items clearly not alive.
However, inﬂation is just the cosomological paradigm, not a theory! The known
ﬁeld-theoretical mechanisms of inﬂation use a slow-roll scalar ﬁeld φ (called inﬂaton) with
proper scalar potential V(φ) (12; 13).
The scale of inﬂation is well beyond the electro-weak scale, ie. is well beyond the Standard
Model of Elementary Particles! Thus the inﬂationary stage in the early universe is the most
powerful High-Energy Physics (HEP) accelerator in Nature (up to 1010 TeV).
Milestones in Spin — the sixth supplement in the series and the first in
the physical sciences — presents key developments in the story of ‘spin’. Spin
describes the intrinsic angular momentum of elementary particles, a concept
developed in the mid-1920s as physicists sought to explain experimental
observations made decades earlier.