The fields of biological and medical physics and biomedical engineering are
broad, multidisciplinary and dyanmic. They lie at the crossroads of frontier research
in physics, biology, chemistry, and medicine. The Biological & Medical
Physics/Biomedical Engineering Series is intended to be comprehensive,
covering a broad range of topics important to the study of the physical, chemical
and biological sciences. Its goal is to provide scientists and engineers with
textbooks, monographs, and reference works to address the growing need for
The concept of IT is understood and defined in the Government Resolution 49/CP dated 04/08/1993 signed: Information Technology is a collection of scientific methods, the means of existing techniques and tools university - mainly computer technology and telecommunications - to organize the exploitation and efficient use of resources and information rich potential in all areas of human activity and society.
Bioinformatics ? Biology and Computers ? What do they have to do with each other?
I suppose that this question could have been raised even in 19th century when
technologies of computers and biology were just emerging. At one city in France the
great Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was studying how fermentation of alcohol was
linked to the existence of a specific microorganism. In another city in England,
equally great Charles Babbage (1791-1871) was oiling his Analytical Engine in which
Ada Lovelace, a mathematician who understood Babbage's vision, was trying to
calculate the Bernoulli numbers.
Computational chemistry and molecular modeling is a fast emerging area which is used for the modeling and simulation of small chemical and biological systems in order to understand and predict their behavior at the molecular level. It has a wide range of applications in various disciplines of engineering sciences, such as materials science, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, etc.
Last spring, I released The Emerging Digital Economy, the Department of Commerce’s first report
measuring the development of electronic commerce. I wrote then that the report aimed to provide us
with a clearer understanding of the "promise" of electronic commerce – "a future with more
opportunity and prosperity" for all Americans
The computing world today is in the middle of a revolution: mobile clients and cloud computing have emerged as the dominant paradigms driving programming and hardware innovation today. The Fifth Edition of Computer Architecture focuses on this dramatic shift, exploring the ways in which software and technology in the cloud are accessed by cell phones, tablets, laptops, and other mobile computing devices. Each chapter includes two real-world examples, one mobile and one datacenter, to illustrate this revolutionary change....
The years 1945–55 saw the emergence of a radically new kind of device: the high-speed
stored-program digital computer. Secret wartime projects in areas such as code-breaking, radar and ballistics had produced a wealth of ideas and technologies that
kick-started this first decade of the Information Age. The brilliant mathematician and
code-breaker Alan Turing was just one of several British pioneers whose prototype
machines led the way.
Turning theory into practice proved tricky, but by 1948 five UK research groups
had begun to build practical stored-program computers.
The emergence of Grid computing as the prototype of a next-generation cyber infrastructure for science has excited high expectations for its potential as an accelerator of discovery, but it has also raised questions about whether and how the broad population of research professionals, who must be the foundation of such productivity, can be motivated to adopt this new and more complex way of working.
This chapter presents aspects of the UK e-Science communities’ plans for generic Grid middleware. In particular, it derives from the discussions of the UK Architecture Task Force . The UK e-Science Core Programme will focus on architecture and middleware development in order to contribute signiﬁcantly to the emerging Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) . This architecture views Grid technology as a generic integration mechanism assembled from Grid Services (GS), which are an extension of Web Services (WS) to comply with additional Grid requirements. ...
Computational Grids  have emerged as a distributed computing infrastructure for providing pervasive, ubiquitous access to a diverse set of resources ranging from highperformance computers (HPC), tertiary storage systems, large-scale visualization systems, expensive and unique instruments including telescopes and accelerators. One of the primary motivations for building Grids is to enable large-scale scientiﬁc research projects to better utilize distributed, heterogeneous resources to solve a particular problem or set of problems....
In the last few years, the search for radically new approaches to software engineering has witnessed a great momentum. These efforts are well justified by the troubling state of present day computer science. Software engineering practices based on design-time architectural composition (the only assessed way of doing software engineering so far), lead to brittle and fragile systems, unable to gracefully cope with reconfiguration and faults.
This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in pervasive computing and networking. It contains contributions from high profile researchers and is edited by leading experts in this field. The main topics covered in the book include pervasive computing and systems, pervasive networking security, and pervasive networking and communication.
Information technologies include the entire field of computer-based information processing (i.e., hardware,
software, applications, and services, telecommunication links and networks, digital databases, and the integrated
technical specifications that enable these systems to function interactively). Information technologies are a major
force in the U.S. economy and new applications are being developed and deployed into the marketplace on an 18-
to 24-month cycle.
Interactive information visualization is an emerging and powerful research technique that can be used to understand models of language and their abstract representations. Much of what computational linguists fall back upon to improve NLP applications and to model language “understanding” is structure that has, at best, only an indirect attestation in observable data. An important part of our research progress thus depends on our ability to fully investigate, explain, and explore these structures, both empirically and relative to accepted linguistic theory. ...
Experimental studies of interactive language use have shed light on the cognitive and interpersonal processes that shape conversation; corpora are the emergent products of these processes. I will survey studies that focus on under-modelled aspects of interactive language use, including the processing of spontaneous speech and disfluencies; metalinguistic displays such as hedges; interactive processes that affect choices of referring expressions; and how communication media shape conversations. The findings suggest some agendas for computational linguistics. ...
This is the story of how one of the new natural language processing products reached the marketplace. On the surface, it is the story of one NL researcherturned-entrepreneur (yours truly) and of one product, Q&A. But this is not just my story: It is in microcosm the story of NL emerging from the confines of the academic world, which in turn is an instance of the old theme "science goes commercial."
The emergence of Internet as a global information repository, where information of all kind is stored, requires intelligent information processing tools (i.e., computer applications) to help the information seeker to retrieve the stored information. To build these intelligent information processing tools, we need to build computer applications that understand human language since most of those information is represented in human language. This is where computational linguistics becomes important, especially for countries like Indonesia that hosts more than 200 million people. ...
Several important tendencies have been emerging recently in the NLP community. First of all, work on corpora tends to become the norm, which constitutes a fruitful convergence area between taskdriven, computational approaches and descriptive linguistic ones. On corpora validation becomes more and more important for theoretical models, and the accuracy of these models can be evaluated either with regard to their ability to account for the reality of a given corpus (pursuing descriptive aims), either with regard to their ability to analyse it accurately (pursuing operational aims). ...
In Chapter 1, the treatment of access networks has been modernized, and the description of the Internet ISP ecosystem has been substantially revised, accounting for the recent emergence of content provider networks, such as Google’s. The presentation of packet switching and circuit switching has also been reorganized, providing a more topical rather than historical orientation.