I start at the beginning, with a summary of the JOBS Act. Next, I review the
current financing environment for startups, followed by a review of Emerging
Growth Companies (EGCs), a new business firm category created by the
JOBS Act. I cover disclosure and crowdfunding in the next chapters. Portals,
like Indiegogo and Kickstarter, are described next. I end where we began, with
a section by section review of the JOBS Act.
It is not surprising that fundamental tensions in the design of the safety
net emerge at diﬀerent points in the program’s history, given the EITC’s
status as the largest cash or near-cash antipoverty program.
In the mid-
1960s and early 1970s there was a great deal of discussion about the ap-
propriate design of antipoverty policy. At the risk of oversimplifying, one
part of the policy debate focused on either direct earnings subsidies (of
which the EITC is one) or on subsidies paid to employers to hire disad....
268 Planning and Forecasting
Hook the Reader That means having the first sentence or paragraph highlight the potential of the opportunity. I have read too many plans that start with “Company XYZ, incorporated in the state of Delaware, will develop and sell widgets.” Ho-hum. That doesn’t excite me; but if, in contrast, the first sentence states, “The current market for widgets is $50 million and is growing at an annual rate of 20%. The emergence of the Internet is likely to accelerate this market’s growth.
Using a bottom up approach, totals are aggregated from 2,490 discrete individual product group lines.
Each of these lines uses specific data sources and can be analysed individually, unlike traditional
studies which often group together data sources.
Forecasts are calculated using the same principles as for determining market value and as such can be
applied on a line by line basis. This allows the identification of high growth areas within a particular
Financial development is important for fostering economic growth and stability. This is a
feature of the development process that has been extensively documented in the literatures
One of key components in this process is capital market development. For
example, deepening the long-term local bond market facilitates the reduction of currency and
maturity mismatches on corporations’ balance sheets. This also creates alternatives to bank
financing that can support efficiency and stability.
Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) are investment funds owned and managed by
national governments. Such funds currently manage between $1.9 and $2.9 trillion
and are expected to grow to over $12 trillion by 2015. This is due to the rapid growth
of commodity prices and large trade surpluses in several emerging market economies.
During the second half of 2007, interest in SWFs increased as Asian and Middle
Eastern SWFs, fueled by surging foreign exchange reserves, invested large sums of
capital in U.S. and other Western companies.
Other areas that pose a challenge for developing countries include the potential impact of
the operations of insurance companies on the activities of policyholders and the economy
as a whole, the impact of emerging trends in the global insurance market, the need to
overcome supply-side constraints, the need to raise public awareness about the benefits of
insurance coverage, the need to build human capacity and how to take advantage of
changes arising from liberalization and globalization within the insurance sector to
develop export opportunities.
Although the characteristics of emerging markets are relatively diverse, Thailand can
represent the rest of the emerging countries, those in Asia in particular. This is because the
Thai stock market exhibits several behaviours which are consistent with the average for
emerging markets. For example, while the ten-year annualized growth of emerging markets
ranged from -0.03% (Taiwan) to 20.45% (India), the Thai stock market grew by 12.36% per
year and this figure is comparable to the growth of the MSCI Emerging Markets index
11.69% (MSCI, 2010).
Although some older companies, including IBM and Hewlett-Packard, played central
parts in the emerging IT industries, no one imagines that these industries could have
taken off as profusely as they did just from the existing corporate base. The ongoing
series of new growth companies provided the highly adaptive economic infrastructure
The question we now face is how to re-kindle economic expansion and job creation.
With the rise of China, India, and other countries, innovation is becoming more
globalized than ever.
Economic growth in India has picked up in recent years, and like other integrating Asian economies, it
too requires large amounts of efficiently intermediated capital to sustain its development. However, an
important constraint to financial reform has been dealing with the vestiges of financial “repression”—
deliberate policies that crowd out the private sector from credit markets and limit the ability of financial
markets to develop as intermediaries for saving.
Horton (2000, p.1193) suggests, “To remain viable and productive, public health
workers need the ability to continue to acquire knowledge. Through new technologies - in
addition to the technologies of the past - and distance learning, they can access information
and training at any time, from any place.” Satellite communication presents number of
possibilities to provide health education training to health workers via distance learning and
Distance learning and e-learning are vital for the empowerment of health workers in
Just under a third (31%) of overall activity in this sector is in manufacturing, with the highest levels of
manufacturing in the Wind and Carbon Capture & Storage sectors ‐ the latter a reflection of the
current drive to prove the technology through pilot projects.
In the 1980s, the design profession experienced substantial growth with the
emergence of a dominant retailing sector and the mergers and de-mutualisation of
major financial institutions. This investment in design was especially in interiors,
corporate identity, packaging and graphics. Graphics/corporate identity/packaging
companies dominate the profession and these companies serve retail and service
companies in the UK, as well as exporting their services.