Emissions inventory

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  • As recently as the late 1970’s air emissions in Europe and the USA were terribly high. For instance, in 1978 sulfur dioxide (SO2)-emissions in Europe stood at 70 million tons (Figure 1), almost three times higher than current Chinese emissions. Not only were emissions terribly high, but any impartial observer of the future seen from the perspective of 1978, basing his views on recent trends in European SO2-emissions from 1945-1978, would have had to admit that realistically, emissions would continue to grow.

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  • We have used a limited data set—comprised of a sector-level emissions inventory and original emissions estimates for a small sample of industrial facilities—to shed light on the links between maquiladoras, air pollution, and human health in Paso del Norte. We found that particulate emissions from maquiladoras undoubtedly have significant impacts on human health—collectively, these plants are probably responsible for dozens of cases of premature mortality and thousands of cases of respiratory disease each year.

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  • This 1993 document entitled "Assessment of Sources of Air, Water, and Land Pollution: A Guide to Rapid Source Inventory Techniques" provides techniques for conducting source inventories in Chapter 2 and describes models for estimating air emissions under current controls in Chapter 3. Appendix II includes the United Nations (UN) classification of industries and services.

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  • To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles...

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  • This study to develop AQ pollutant datasets for each of the constituent countries of the UK has been commissioned by Defra in order to better inform energy and environmental policy-makers within the Devolved Administrations in their pursuit of objectives set by the Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (AQS for ESWNI). These objectives also contribute to the UK’s targets as a whole in terms of meeting both national and international targets on both local and transboundary air pollution....

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  • Although processes for the production of LVOC are extremely diverse and complex, they are typically composed of a combination of simpler activities and equipment that are based on similar scientific and engineering principles. Chapter 2 describes how unit processes, unit operations, site infrastructure, energy control and management systems are combined and modified to create a production sequence for the desired LVOC product.

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  • Emission inventories play a dual role in global air pollution issues. Firstly, they can be used directly to establish the more important source categories, to identify trends in emissions and to examine the impact of different policy approaches. Secondly, emission inventories are used to drive atmospheric models applied to assess the environmental consequences of changing trace gas emissions and concentrations and to provide advice to policy makers. This second role contributes to the atmospheric modelling community being an important user of emission inventories.

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  • The actual contribution of the cement sector to dioxin emissions remains controversial as the science of measuring these emissions is rather nascent (WBCSD 2002). For example, the EU Dioxin Inventory and the Australian Emissions Inventory measured dioxin emission factors that ranged by orders of magnitude (WBCSD 2002). In general, the US attributes a greater share of total dioxin emissions to the cement sector than do other countries such as Australia and those in the EU. The difference is largely due to divergent approaches to monitoring cement kiln emissions (WBCSD 2002). ...

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  • Air pollution in general, especially air pollution from road traffic in particular in Hochiminh City (HCMC) are at the alarming. Using models to simulate air quality is needed to · manage and predict the air pollution levels. Research results have prepared emission inventory of air pollutants from road traffic, industry and domestic sources in HCMC. Besides, TAPQM and FVM models were used to simulate the meteorological conditions and air quality in HCMC.

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  • Most of the VOCs probably derived from indoor sources. However, the wall cavity was an apparent source of acetaldehyde, toluene and xylenes and the belly space was a source of 2-butanone, lower volatility aldehydes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations varied with time. Adjusted formaldehyde concentrations exhibited the most temporal variability with concentrations ranging from 25 µg m-3 to 128 µg m-3 and the lowest concentrations occurring in winter months when indoor RH was low.

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  • In Austria, particulate matter is measured in agreement with national legislation as Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) at more than 110 sites, whereas PM10 measurements are not yet available. It was assumed that ambient air TSP levels can be attributed to the contribution of local sources and regional background concentrations. Both of them were modelled separately. The starting point for the modelling of local contributions was the availability of a spatially disaggregated emission inventory for nitrogen oxides (NOx).

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  • The Swiss work was based on a provisional national PM10 emission inventory. It was first disaggregated to a km2 grid. Dispersion functions for primary PM10 emission were defined in an empirical dispersion model which was used to calculate the concentration of primary PM10. The contribution of secondary particles was modelled by using simple relationships between precursor and particle concentration. The long-range transported fraction was taken from European scale models. The PM10 fractions were then summed to create the PM10 map.

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  • This chapter examines the link between Paso del Norte’s air pollution and its maquiladoras. To what extent are maquiladoras responsible for this pollution? What impacts does it have on human health? Are the poor disproportionately affected? Unfortunately, little reliable publicly available data exist to answer these questions. This chapter takes a first step toward filling this gap by marshalling two types of evidence.

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  • Nevertheless, the broad message of this analysis is fairly clear. Air pollution from maquiladoras has serious consequences for human health, including respiratory disease and premature mortality. However, maquiladoras are clearly not the leading cause of air pollution in Paso del Norte. Moreover, most maquiladoras are probably less important sources of dangerous air pollution than at least one notoriously polluting Mexican-owned industry. Finally, we find no evidence to suggest that maquiladora air pollution affects the poor disproportionately.

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  • The best available emissions inventory for Ciudad Juárez is the 1996 Sistema Nacional de Información de Fuentes Fijas (SNIFF) for the state of Chihuahua (Gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua 1998). Unfortunately, these data are problematic. Although plant-level data exist, only data aggregated to the level of the industry subsectors is publicly available. Also, questions have been raised about the reliability of the data.

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  • Before continuing to read this book, stop, place this volume back on the shelf and take a moment to look through the pages of an illustrated atlas of the world. At least half of this atlas will probably be given over to illustrating one of the dominant political ordering principles around which our world continues to be constructed and conceived—the nation-state. If your atlas is similar to ours, however, you will also notice that nation-states are not only represented and recognized according to their territorial shape and oYcial political nomenclature....

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  • We decided to use continuous monitoring to improve shipping throughput (speed) and accuracy. Our goals included the elimination of the annual physical inventory—but this was a minor benefit. The real benefit was efficiency of the distribution operation—speed in picking and shipping product with less staff, every day of the year. We built an inventory locator system and improved automated efficiencies by adding locations to the pick tickets. We then added a control function (Inventory Control Dept. [ICD]) that reviewed inventory received, and released it into the inventory.

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  • First, recall that the SNIFF emissions inventory discussed above clearly indicates that industry is not the leading source of particulate emissions in Ciudad Juárez. Rather, the leading sources are vehicles, unpaved roads, and soil erosion (Table 1). Moreover, even leaving aside vehicles and soils, the single most important industrial subsector in terms of air pollution is brick kilns, not maquiladoras (Table 2). In fact, brick kilns emit more particulate matter than all other industrial plants combined.

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  • There are three types of consumer perception about organic product: pro-organic, health conscious, and skeptic and it shown at the figure 2. The most pro-organic say that organic farming is better for the environment. Since the organic farming can avoid pesticides and other toxins, so it might be the number one reason of the health conscious one. In the other hand, there are skeptic minds which say that organic products are too expensive, so they don’t want to spend their money for it. In figure 3, it showed the survey that had been done in Ireland, Germany,...

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