Xem 1-20 trên 75 kết quả Emissions regulations
  • This document is one of several white papers that summarize readily available information on control techniques and measures to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from specific industrial sectors.

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  • Liquid fuel consumption by medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs) represents 26 percent of all U.S. liquid transportation fuels consumed and has increased more rapidly—in both absolute and percentage terms—than consumption by other sectors. In early recognition of these trends, which are forecast to continue until 2035 (DOE, EIA, 2009), the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA; Public Law 110-140, Dec. 19, 2007), Section 108, was passed, requiring the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), for the first time in history, to establish fuel economy standards for MHDVs.

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  • Monitoring the environment for metals has become a topic of considerable importance, not only to those industries emitting heavy metals but also to surveillance agencies and other organizations assessing the impact of metals on the environment. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive and easyto- read text for anyone working in the environmental analytical chemistry arena and to provide essential information to consultants and regulators about analytical and quality control procedures helpful in their evaluation and decision-making procedures.

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  • Engine management systems are designed to ensure that the vehicle complies with emissions regulations as well as to provide improved performance. This means that the number of sensors and actuators is considerably greater than for a simple fuelling or ignition system.

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  • The papers in this volume explore the key issues linked to this shift, including: ' Increasing research into the Earth Sciences, climate reconstruction and forecasting in order to decrease the degree of uncertainty about the origin, development and implications of climate change; ' The introduction of more binding and comprehensive regulation of both greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation measures, like that in the United Kingdom; ' Matching climate policy with that for disasters and mainstreaming it into overall development strategies.

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  • From the early 1970s to mid-1990s, positron emission tomography (PET) as a diagnostic imaging modality had been for the most part used in experimental research. Clinical PET started only a decade ago. 82Rb-RbCl and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug administration in 1989 and 1994, respectively, for clinical PET imaging. Reimbursement by Medicare was approved in 1995 for 82Rb-PET myocardial perfusion imaging and for 18F-FDG PET for various oncologic indications in 1999. Currently several more PET procedures are covered for reimbursement....

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  • Taxes on carbon and energy remain an important instrument to curb greenhouse gas emissions, in particular for those emitters and installa- tions that are not covered by emissions trading for CO2. Even emitters under the European Union’s emissions trading system are likely to con- tinue to face taxes on their use of energy for reasons indicated in the EU’s Energy Taxation Directive and relating to the functioning of the internal market as well as to concerns for security of energy supply.

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  • The origins of this book date back to my attendance of Carbon Expo, a carbon credit conference in Cologne, Germany in 2006. My goal was to learn about the the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme and the activities surrounding the Kyoto Protocol. I wanted to understand the development of emissions markets for greenhouse gases. I was expecting a conference of a few hundred, but to my surprise found a large conference of several thousand people in attendance.

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  • King, Heywood and others foresee the potential for further improvements in new car fuel economy, up to a 50% reduction in L/100 km by 2030-2035, mainly through the wider penetration of technolo- gies leading up to, and including, fully hybridized vehicles. The introduction of grid-connected bat- tery electric vehicles (probably first as “plug-in” hy- brids) would also contribute to efficiency improve- ment (in addition to fuel shifts toward electricity), assuming sustained progress in battery technol- ogy.

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  • The development of a strategy involves the selection of a coherent set of measures which, taken together, will reduce the emissions of transport pollutants. These measures can be technology-oriented, targeting the vehicles and fuels used and maintenance practices within the sector, or they can be behavioural, seeking to reduce (or prevent increases in) the amount of activity of the most polluting vehicles.

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  • Critical loads, and other approaches that use models or empirical observations to link deposition with effects, provide tools that enable resource managers and policymakers to evaluate tradeoffs between the costs of more stringent emissions controls and the benefits of ecosystem services provided by healthy ecosystems. A critical loads approach can be used to synthesize scientific knowledge about air pollution thresholds that cause adverse impacts or ecosystem change.

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  • At the ICAO Meeting, the EU successfully warded off the threat. A resolution agreed by the International civil aviation organization (ICAO) allows Europe to continue developing kerosene taxes, emission charges and aviation emission trading. British transport minister Alistair Darling hailed "a very successful result in the face of a very difficult situation" at the end of ICAO's triennial assembly in Montreal. "Attempts to restrict freedom of action...have been averted," he said.

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  • For surface treatment processes of metals and plastics by electrolytic and chemical processes using solvents, the Integrated Pollution, Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive 96/61/EC applies. Industrial production processes account for a considerable share of overall pollution in Europe (for emissions of greenhouse gases and acidifying substances, wastewater emissions and waste). The EU has established a set of common rules for permitting and controlling industrial installations in this IPPC Directive.

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  • Measurements were carried out in a sheep shed and a pig- sty at a FAL branch in Mariensee near Neustadt-Hanno- ver, Germany, during the winter months when all animals spend their time indoors. Data was collected from a pigsty from 2st to 28th of Janu- ary 200. Hygiene regulations did not permit entry into the pigsty, and the measurement setup was therefore deployed in a nearby building with a heated sampling line hooked up to the exhaust of a flue. The normally intermittent ex- haust was changed to a constant low flow midway through the weeklong sampling period.

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  • The review of other jurisdictions indicated that there was no jurisdiction that regulated pulp mills for colour on a technology basis. Available literature indicates application of the BATEA outlined in section 3.0 to minimize BOD and AOX releases will also result in minimization of colour to 50 kg/ADt or less. However, Alberta Environment requires colour standards for any newly constructed pulp and paper mill until the mill can demonstrate consistent wastewater colour levels below the colour standards.

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  • The Durban Platform signifies an important milestone in the climate change negotiations and reflects the attitude towards the new climate regime. It reinforces some key building blocks for a sustained and comprehensive attempt to tackle the climate crisis.

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  • Internal combustion engines have experienced an enjoyed monopoly for almost a century as power sources of road transport vehicles. But, in the same period, vehicle ownership and mileages increased to a level that the resulting petroleum based fuel consumption, urban air pollutants and green house gas emissions (the challenging triad) have became great concern especially for past a few decades.

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  • Does this mean that differences in genetic diversity levels will have predictable ecological consequences? The answer is no, because only one portion of genetic diversity is connected to ecological factors, i.e. adaptation. Ecological adaptation is a significant factor for example, in range expansion of plant species. Plants with different genotypes conferring the highest levels of fitness are expected to survive and reproduce better, shifting the gene pool over time towards higher frequencies of the alleles making up the more successful genotypes (Ward et al., 2008).

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  • Remaining Funds, which account for €147 billion of shares/units in issue, consist primarily of mixed funds, but also include real estate and other unclassified funds. This category has performed positively in Q1 2012, second only to equity funds in terms of revaluations, with asset growth of €8.9 billion or 6.4 per cent. Remaining funds were the strongest performing category in Q4 2011, and despite a continued resilient performance, the category attracted negligible net new investment of €0.1 billion. ...

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  • Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidant that can be injected into a contaminated zone to destroy petroleum contaminants. When injected to groundwater, hydrogen peroxide is unstable, and reacts with organic contaminants and subsurface materials. It decomposes to oxygen and water within hours of its introduction into groundwater generating heat in the process. Peroxide is typically shipped to a remediation site in liquid form at dose concentrations ranging from five percent to 50 percent by weight.

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