This book provides an interdisciplinary view of how to prepare the ecological and socio-economic systems to the reality of climate change. Scientifically sound tools are needed to predict its effects on regional, rather than global, scales, as it is the level at which socio-economic plans are designed and natural ecosystem reacts. The first section of this book describes a series of methods and models to downscale the global predictions of climate change, estimate its effects on biophysical systems and monitor the changes as they occur....
With global populations on the rise and the increasing threat associated with climate change, the need for the development of low emission energy resources is clear. Geothermal energy, which originates from the underground heat of the earth (Sankaran, 2002), has the advantage of being a low-emission, baseload energy resource. Unlike other alternative energy resources, geothermal energy production does not fluctuate with time of day or season.
Advances in nanotechnology over the past decade have made scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) an indispensable and powerful tool for analyzing and
constructing new nanomaterials. Development of nanomaterials requires
advanced techniques and skills to attain higher quality images, understand
nanostructures, and improve synthesis strategies. A number of advancements
in SEM such as field emission guns, electron back scatter detection (EBSD),
and X-ray element mapping have improved nanomaterials analysis.
This study to develop AQ pollutant datasets for each of the constituent countries of the UK has been commissioned by Defra in order to better inform energy and environmental policy-makers within the Devolved Administrations in their pursuit of objectives set by the Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (AQS for ESWNI). These objectives also contribute to the UK’s targets as a whole in terms of meeting both national and international targets on both local and transboundary air pollution....
The approach to assessing climate risks and im-
pacts consists of the following sequential steps: (1)
determining climate variables at the level of the
city/watershed through downscaling techniques;
(2) estimating impacts and vulnerability through
hydrometeorological modeling, scenario analysis,
and GIS mapping; and (3) preparing a damage/
loss assessment and identification/prioritization
of adaptation options.
As a first step, each of the city-level studies
considered two IPCC scenarios, a high- and a low-
and estimated climate risks
In recent years, great advancements have been made in understanding the mechanisms of the functioning
of the human brain. Technological developments such as functional magnetic resonance
imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have
made possible the mapping of the images of cerebral activity from hemodynamic, metabolic or electromagnetic
The Swiss work was based on a provisional national PM10 emission inventory. It was first
disaggregated to a km2
grid. Dispersion functions for primary PM10 emission were defined in an
empirical dispersion model which was used to calculate the concentration of primary PM10. The
contribution of secondary particles was modelled by using simple relationships between precursor and
particle concentration. The long-range transported fraction was taken from European scale models.
The PM10 fractions were then summed to create the PM10 map.