Adaptive filtering can be used to characterize unknown systems in time-variant environments. The main objective of this approach is to meet a difficult comprise: maximum convergence speed with maximum accuracy. Each application requires a certain approach which determines the filter structure, the cost function to minimize the estimation error, the adaptive algorithm, and other parameters; and each selection involves certain cost in computational terms, that in any case should consume less time than the time required by the application working in real-time....
We present a mobile touchable application for online topic graph extraction and exploration of web content. The system has been implemented for operation on an iPad. The topic graph is constructed from N web snippets which are determined by a standard search engine. We consider the extraction of a topic graph as a speciﬁc empirical collocation extraction task where collocations are extracted between chunks.
We present an empirical study of the applicability of Probabilistic Lexicalized Tree Insertion Grammars (PLTIG), a lexicalized counterpart to Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars (PCFG), to problems in stochastic naturallanguage processing. Comparing the performance of PLTIGs with non-hierarchical N-gram models and PCFGs, we show that PLTIG combines the best aspects of both, with language modeling capability comparable to N-grams, and improved parsing performance over its nonlexicalized counterpart. Furthermore, training of PLTIGs displays faster convergence than PCFGs. ...
a new sentence realization framework for text-to-text applications. This framework uses IDL-expressions as a representation formalism, and a generation mechanism based on algorithms for intersecting IDL-expressions with probabilistic language models. We present both theoretical and empirical results concerning the correctness and efﬁciency of these algorithms.
This paper presents a status quo of an ongoing research study of collocations – an essential linguistic phenomenon having a wide spectrum of applications in the ﬁeld of natural language processing. The core of the work is an empirical evaluation of a comprehensive list of automatic collocation extraction methods using precision-recall measures and a proposal of a new approach integrating multiple basic methods and statistical classiﬁcation.
Compounded words are a challenge for NLP applications such as machine translation (MT). We introduce methods to learn splitting rules from monolingual and parallel corpora. We evaluate them against a gold standard and measure their impact on performance of statistical MT systems. Results show accuracy of 99.1% and performance gains for MT of 0.039 BLEU on a German-English noun phrase translation task.
Review of empirical relationships between inlet cross-section and tidal prism. This contribution compares some theoretical elaborations both qualitatively and quantitatively, confront these with US and Dutch empirical data and discuss their pros and cons for practical applications.
Understanding the relationship between credit and interest rate risk is critical to many applications in finance, from valuation of credit and interest rate-sensitive instruments to risk management. This study empirically examines the relationship between interest rates and default risk using firm level corporate default data in the United States between 1982 and 2008. We find significant negative contemporaneous correlations between the changes in short interest rates and aggregate default rates, with a particularly strong relationship around financial crises.
Biometrics-Unique and Diverse Applications in Nature, Science, and Technology provides a unique sampling of the diverse ways in which biometrics is integrated into our lives and our technology. From time immemorial, we as humans have been intrigued by, perplexed by, and entertained by observing and analyzing ourselves and the natural world around us.
It is difficult to overemphasize the importance of magnetic resonance techniques in
chemistry. Experimental spectra can usually be successfully interpreted empirically,
but more difficult cases require a prediction based on the electronic structure. In the
last 25 years the calculation of magnetic resonance parameters from first principles
has become a powerful research tool that can significantly enhance the utility of
magnetic resonance techniques when empirical interpretations are insufficient.
In popular usage the term ‘profession’ has a wide variety of connotations,
spanning from a highly skilled and specialized job to any fulltime work from
which income is derived (Freidson 1986). The boundaries of interpretation are
narrower in sociology, but sociologists have also still to reach agreement about
the meaning of the term ‘profession’ and the related question of which
occupations are to count as professions.
Hence, the average age of the air pollution related fatalities is much higher than for victims of fatal
road accidents (30-40 years of age).
Theoretical as well as empirical evidence indicates a decreasing WTP with increasing age, with
reduced remaining life expectancy and with reduced quality of life. For the present study, the
relationship adopted is provided by the latest research of Jones-Lee.
W e recommend amendments clarifying the ethics committee’ s func-
tions in relation to approving extensions to the applicable period of
storage of gametes and embryos. The bill would ensure that the ethics
committee made decisions about approving, changing, or cancelling
extensions to storage periods in much the same way as it would make
decisions on activities listed as requiring approval under the Act.
Proposed new sections 10A to 10D and 28(1)(aaa) of the Act relate
to the ethics committee’ s functions in dealing with storage issues.
The most signiﬁcant audience for which Hollywood failed to
cater in the immediate post-war decades, and which created the basis
for some of the most important strains of independent production,
was the youth audience. Hollywood was very slow to respond to
demographic and other social changes during the 1950s and 1960s
that created a large audience receptive to material targeted at teenage
From our earlier analysis, increasing controlling owners’ equity ownership
beyond the minimum level needed for effective control creates incentive alignment
effects that curtail entrenchment effects, which in turn increase earnings informativeness.
On the other hand, the information argument suggests a negative relation between
ownership concentration and earnings informativeness. As the incentive alignment and
the information effects could coexist, the relation between ownership concentration and
earnings informativeness is ambiguous and needs to be addressed empirically....
In the last two decades, Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) have emerged
as a new interface type that interlinks the digital and physical worlds.
Drawing upon users’ knowledge and skills of interaction with the real
non-digital world, TUIs show a potential to enhance the way in which
people interact with and leverage digital information.
The book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences is designed to help under-
graduate and PhD students, postdocs, and professionals to ﬁ nd quick solu-
tions for common problems in data analysis in earth sciences. The book
provides a minimum amount of theoretical background, but then tries to
teach the application of all methods by examples. The software MATLAB
is used since it provides numerous ready-to-use algorithms for most meth-
ods of data analysis, but also gives the opportunity to modify and expand
the existing routines and even develop new software.
Based on a review of the current performance values for Alberta mills, other Canadian
mills, and top performing mills in the U.S. and to allow sufficient flexibility for plant
operations during shutdown, start-up and upset conditions, Alberta’s standards for AOX
are a monthly average of 0.5 kg/ADt and a daily maximum of 1.0 kg/ADt for both new
and existing mills. The values are applicable at approval renewal for existing pulp and
paper mills, and applied directly to any new mills.
E-commerce provides immense capability for connectivity through buying and selling activities all over the world. During the last two decades new concepts of business have evolved due to popularity of the Internet, providing new business opportunities for commercial organisations and they are being further influenced by user activities of newer applications of the Internet. Business transactions are made possible through a combination of secure data processing, networking technologies and interactivity functions....
This paper empirically examines the inf luence of “community effects,” in
the form of word-of-mouth communication, on the decision about whether to
participate in the stock market. In addition to its importance at the individ-
ual level, equity market participation is also important at the aggregate level
because of its ability to inf luence the size of the equity premium (Mankiw
and Zeldes (1991), Heaton and Lucas (2000), Brav, Constantinides, and Gezcy