Paraphrase generation is an important task that has received a great deal of interest recently. Proposed data-driven solutions to the problem have ranged from simple approaches that make minimal use of NLP tools to more complex approaches that rely on numerous language-dependent resources. Despite all of the attention, there have been very few direct empirical evaluations comparing the merits of the different approaches.
This article presents empirical evaluations of aspects of annotation for the linguistic property of animacy in Swedish, ranging from manual human annotation, automatic classiﬁcation and, ﬁnally, an external evaluation in the task of syntactic parsing.
We present an empirical study of the applicability of Probabilistic Lexicalized Tree Insertion Grammars (PLTIG), a lexicalized counterpart to Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars (PCFG), to problems in stochastic naturallanguage processing. Comparing the performance of PLTIGs with non-hierarchical N-gram models and PCFGs, we show that PLTIG combines the best aspects of both, with language modeling capability comparable to N-grams, and improved parsing performance over its nonlexicalized counterpart. Furthermore, training of PLTIGs displays faster convergence than PCFGs. ...
This paper presents a status quo of an ongoing research study of collocations – an essential linguistic phenomenon having a wide spectrum of applications in the ﬁeld of natural language processing. The core of the work is an empirical evaluation of a comprehensive list of automatic collocation extraction methods using precision-recall measures and a proposal of a new approach integrating multiple basic methods and statistical classiﬁcation.
We investigate the empirical behavior of ngram discounts within and across domains. When a language model is trained and evaluated on two corpora from exactly the same domain, discounts are roughly constant, matching the assumptions of modiﬁed Kneser-Ney LMs. However, when training and test corpora diverge, the empirical discount grows essentially as a linear function of the n-gram count. We adapt a Kneser-Ney language model to incorporate such growing discounts, resulting in perplexity improvements over modiﬁed Kneser-Ney and Jelinek-Mercer baselines. ...
We have developed a system that generates evaluative arguments that are tailored to the user, properly arranged and concise. We have also developed an evaluation framework in which the effectiveness of evaluative arguments can be measured with real users. This paper presents the results of a formal experiment we have performed in our framework to verify the influence of argument conciseness on argument effectiveness In the remainder of the paper, we first describe a computational framework for generating evaluative arguments at different levels of conciseness. ...
While the notion of a cooperative response has been the focus of considerable research in natural language dialogue systems, there has been little empirical work demonstrating how such responses lead to more efficient, natural, or successful dialogues. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of two alternative response strategies in TOOT, a spoken dialogue agent that allows users to access train schedules stored on the web via a telephone conversation.
We present a comparative study on Machine Translation Evaluation according to two different criteria: Human Likeness and Human Acceptability. We provide empirical evidence that there is a relationship between these two kinds of evaluation: Human Likeness implies Human Acceptability but the reverse is not true. From the point of view of automatic evaluation this implies that metrics based on Human Likeness are more reliable for system tuning. Our results also show that current evaluation metrics are not always able to distinguish between automatic and human translations.
Compounded words are a challenge for NLP applications such as machine translation (MT). We introduce methods to learn splitting rules from monolingual and parallel corpora. We evaluate them against a gold standard and measure their impact on performance of statistical MT systems. Results show accuracy of 99.1% and performance gains for MT of 0.039 BLEU on a German-English noun phrase translation task.
Research objectives: Study rationale for of evaluation of civil officials according the results of official duty performance; Empirical research of evaluation of civil officials according the results of official duty performance of developed countries; The study evaluated the situation of civil servants in state administrative agencies in Vietnam; Proposed solutions to applied the evaluation of civil officials according the results of official duty performance according to the conditions of Vietnam.
The relationship between political democracy and economic growth has been a center of debate in the past fifty years. A corpus of cross-country research has shown that the theoretical divide on the impact of democratic versus authoritarian regimes on growth is matched by ambiguous empirical results, resulting in a consensus of an inconclusive relationship. Through this paper we challenge this consensus.
Many studies have related overall satisfaction with some product or service to satisfaction with specific aspects of the product or service (Oliver 1980, 1993; Parsuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml 1988, 1991; Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Garbarino and Johnson 1999; DeWulf, Odekerken-Schröder, and Iacobucci 2001). Customers may explain their satisfaction with a product or service in terms of specific aspects such as the product attributes, price, customer service, or a combination of these various features.
The Asian Development Review is the professional journal of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) that aims to disseminate the results of economic and development research carried out by ADB staff and external scholars. The Review seeks high-quality papers with relevance to policy issues and operational matters done in an empirically-rigorous way. Articles are intended for readership among economists and social scientists in government, private sector, academia, and international organizations.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Evaluation of Empirical Mode Decomposition for Event-Related Potential Analysis
This book distils years of work on the mobile telecommunications industry.
I became interested in this industry for professional reasons during the
mid-1990s, a period when the industry was making the jump from a
premium service industry for mostly professional users to a truly mass
market. In my capacity as an applied industrial organisation economist, I
had the unique opportunity of evaluating the business plans and strategies
of a large number of mobile telecommunications firms inside and outside
This discussion first reviews early theoretical clarifications of how population
health change is linked to reduction in mortality at older ages. We briefly
discuss evidence of trends prior to recent decades, subsequent understanding of
trends from empirical models of health, and developments in understanding the
dimensions of health and the process of health change for an aging population.
Recent trends in each dimension of health are then reviewed, ending with a discussion
of trends in healthy life, which is a combination of mortality and morbidity
Mental health and legal professionals face formidable challenges in applying
their knowledge and expertise to the criminal justice system. This
book addresses psycholegal issues from both law (e.g., statutes, case law,
and legal theory) and clinical-forensic (e.g., empirically based knowledge
and specialized methods) perspectives.Within the criminal justice system,
it considers the major legal, empirical, and forensic issues found in the
law–mental health interface.
Our paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 reviews our data, and describes the economic state
variables and risk factors used in the study. Section 3 reviews the investor types considered in
our study, and provides details on the methodology. Section 4 presents the main empirical results,
while Section 5 conducts an attribution analysis and Section 6 provides robustness results. Finally,
Section 7 concludes. Details on data sources, variable construction, and additional robustness
results are provided in a series of appendices available from the web....
Inspired by the work of Dubois and Laurent (1994), Leibenstein (1950), Mason (1992), Kapferer (1998), Eastman
et al. (1999) Phau and Prendergast (2000), and Dubois et al. (2001) on the evaluation of luxury brands, Vigneron
and Johnson (2004) developed a framework of ‗brand luxury index‘ proposing that the luxury-seeking consumer‘s
decision-making process can be explained by five main factors that form a semantic network.
Whether we get forms with extensive clarity by use of Baumgarten’s aesthetic considerations can not
be answered conclusively on these cases, because much indicate that it has given some vague ideas
when students encounter these considerations during evaluations, but without putting them into real use
in their leading feature or as a guidelines in the design process.
However, to the question: How can designers formulate aesthetic considerations which communicate a
clear message to other professionals? an obvious answer is to make use of Baumgarten’s aesthetic