We refine and extend prior views of the description, purposes, and contexts-of-use of acknowledgment acts through empirical examination of the use of acknowledgments in task-based conversation. We distinguish three broad classes of acknowledgments (other--*ackn, self--*other--*ackn, and self+ackn) and present a catalogue of 13 patterns within these classes that account for the specific uses of acknowledgment in the corpus.
Understanding the relationship between credit and interest rate risk is critical to many applications in finance, from valuation of credit and interest rate-sensitive instruments to risk management. This study empirically examines the relationship between interest rates and default risk using firm level corporate default data in the United States between 1982 and 2008. We find significant negative contemporaneous correlations between the changes in short interest rates and aggregate default rates, with a particularly strong relationship around financial crises.
The sixteenth chapter I cannot help considering as a very ingenious and specious, but very disgraceful
extenuation of the cruelties perpetrated by the Roman magistrates against the Christians. It is written in the
most contemptibly factious spirit of prejudice against the sufferers; it is unworthy of a philosopher and of
humanity. Let the narrative of Cyprian's death be examined. He had to relate the murder of an innocent man of
advanced age, and in a station deemed venerable by a considerable body of the provincials of Africa, put to
death because he refused to sacrifice to Jupiter.
This study attempts to find answers to the question of how a computer program should resolve atThis empirical study attempts to find answers to the question of how a natural language (henceforth tachment by examining naturally occurring PP atNL) system could resolve attachment of preposi- tachments in a typed dialogue domain drawn from a study by Brunner, Whittemore, Ferrara, and Hsu tional phrases (henceforth PPs) by examining nat(1989). Various previously developed theories of urally occurring PP attachments in typed dialogue. ...
Many studies have related overall satisfaction with some product or service to satisfaction with specific aspects of the product or service (Oliver 1980, 1993; Parsuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml 1988, 1991; Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Garbarino and Johnson 1999; DeWulf, Odekerken-Schröder, and Iacobucci 2001). Customers may explain their satisfaction with a product or service in terms of specific aspects such as the product attributes, price, customer service, or a combination of these various features.
INFORMATION SYSTEM QUALITY : AN EXAMINATION OF SERVICE-BASED MODELS AND ALTERNATIVES If both peer group
and school effectiveness are important to parents, then, the Tiebout mechanism rewards
effective administrators only when there are many districts. Model (3) suggests that in this
case the test score gap between high- and low-income schools will tend to be larger in
markets with a great deal of interdistrict competition than in those with less Tiebout choice.
I test for this in the empirical analysis below....
This paper empirically examines whether certain corporate governance mechanisms
are related to the probability of a company restating its earnings. We examine a
sample of 159 U.S. public companies that restated earnings and an industry-size
matched sample of control firms. We have assembled a novel, hand-collected data
set that measures the corporate governance characteristics of these 318 firms. We
find that several key governance characteristics are unrelated to the probability of a
company restating earnings.
The Low Achievement Trap is an empirical study of student mathematics learning in Grade 6 classrooms that is unique in its focus on two school systems shaped by different political histories on either side of the Botswana-South Africa border. The study provides a detailed examination of the capacity of teachers - how they teach, how much they teach, and what they teach. Because of this wealth of detail, The Low Achievement Trap gives us much greater insight
This report discusses the nature of investment in public transportation capital
investments and operations in the United States, the ways in which that
investment affects the economy, and the additional impacts of public
transportation investments and services on economic growth in the United States.
This study forms part of a longitudinal study (the main
study) on a population consisting of institutionalised peo-
ple aged 52–102 living in the Province of Granada, Spain.
Data was collected from April 2009 to September 2010.
The main study’s inclusion criteria were to have at least
three natural teeth and/or to wear dentures. 369 residents
were examined at baseline. During the 12-month follow-
up period 102 participants were retired from the study, 66
because they died and 36 because of other causes.
This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between
population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using
more reliable estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering
sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of
demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national
level. We also take into account the urbanization rate and the average household
size neglected by many prior cross-national econometric studies.
This paper empirically examines the inf luence of “community effects,” in
the form of word-of-mouth communication, on the decision about whether to
participate in the stock market. In addition to its importance at the individ-
ual level, equity market participation is also important at the aggregate level
because of its ability to inf luence the size of the equity premium (Mankiw
and Zeldes (1991), Heaton and Lucas (2000), Brav, Constantinides, and Gezcy
The need to pay attention to the possible damage from upside slippage is re-inforced by the observation
that, as far as forecasting goes, the MPC is all too human. Groen, Kapetanios and Price (2009) carried out a
careful assessment of the Inflation Report forecasts, for the period from Bank of England independence in
1997Q3 up to 2006Q2. They found that the Inflation Report forecast of inflation out-performed nearly all of
the range of alternative, purely statistical, models that they examined at one quarter, four quarter and
eight quarter horizons.
After the domination of behaviourism in Anglo-American psychology during the
middle of the century, the impression has been left, reflected in the many texts on
research design, that the experimental method is the central tool of psychological
research. In fact, a glance through journals will illuminate a wide array of datagathering
instruments in use outside the experimental laboratory and beyond the
The outcome of our empirical examination shows that before 2002, a strong contempora-
neous spillover from A to B existed, whilst the unconditional correlation of the structural
innovations is not signicant. This indicates that commonality between the A and B
market was primarily based on the informational leading role of the A market. In the
second period, the large contemporaneous spillover from A to B is replaced by a consider-
able fundamental correlation, let alone a relatively small spillover from B to A.
It has long been recognised that an
appreciation of the role of structure is
essential to the understanding of architecture.
It was Vitruvius, writing at the time of the
founding of the Roman Empire, who identified
the three basic components of architecture as
firmitas, utilitas and venustas and Sir Henry
Wooton, in the seventeenth century1, who
translated these as ‘firmness’, ‘commodity’ and
The empirical relationship between capital controls and the financial development of credit and equity markets is examined. We extend the literature on this subject along a number of dimensions.Specifically, we
(1) investigate a substantially broader set of proxy measures of financial development;
(2) create and utilize a new index based on the IMF measures of exchange restrictions that incorporates a measure of the intensity of capital controls; and (3) extend the previous literature by systematically examining the implications of institutional (legal) factors.
Since time immemorial, medicaments
have been used for treating disease in
humans and animals. The herbals of antiquity
describe the therapeutic powers
of certain plants and minerals. Belief in
the curative powers of plants and certain
substances rested exclusively upon
traditional knowledge, that is, empirical
information not subjected to critical examination.
This paper examines episodes of banking sector distress for a large sample of countries,
highlighting the experience of Japan. We estimate a model that links the onset of banking
problems to a set of macroeconomic variables and institutional characteristics. The model
predicts a high probability of banking sector distress in Japan in the early 1990s, matching actual
developments closely, and suggests that the Japanese episode fits a well-established pattern
characterizing banking sector problems elsewhere.