Fedwire securities are processed individually, in much the same way that
Fedwire funds transfers are processed, and participants initiate securi-
ties transfers in the same manner, using either a computer connection or
the telephone. When the Federal Reserve receives a request to transfer a
security, for example as a result of the sale of securities, it determines that
the security is held in safekeeping for the institution requesting the transfer
and withdraws the security from the institution’s safekeeping account.
This paper proposes to solve the bottleneck of finding training data for word sense disambiguation (WSD) in the domain of web queries, where a complete set of ambiguous word senses are unknown. In this paper, we present a combination of active learning and semi-supervised learning method to treat the case when positive examples, which have an expected word sense in web search result, are only given. The novelty of our approach is to use “pseudo negative examples” with reliable confidence score estimated by a classifier trained with positive and unlabeled examples.
We explore how active learning with Support Vector Machines works well for a non-trivial task in natural language processing. We use Japanese word segmentation as a test case. In particular, we discuss how the size of a pool affects the learning curve. It is found that in the early stage of training with a larger pool, more labeled examples are required to achieve a given level of accuracy than those with a smaller pool. In addition, we propose a novel technique to use a large number of unlabeled examples effectively by adding them gradually to a pool. ...
The aim of this textbook is to provide a step-by-step guide to financial econometrics using EViews 6.0 statistical package. It contains brief overviews of econometric concepts, models and data analysis techniques followed by empirical examples of how they can be implemented in EViews.
This book is written as a compendium for undergraduate and graduate students in economics and finance. It also can serve as a guide for researchers and practitioners who desire to use EViews for analysing financial data.
In addition to covering statistical methods, most of the existing books on
equating also focus on the practice of equating, the implications of test development
and test use for equating practice and policies, and the daily equating challenges
that need to be solved. In some sense, the scope of this book is narrower than of
other existing books: to view the equating and linking process as a statistical
The third result links this permanent component to monetary authorities
behaviour. Recently, G¸rkaynak, Sack and Swanson (2003) show that
the change in expectations of the long-run ináation rate by private agents
depend on macroeconomic and monetary surprises. Moreover, the relationship
between ináation, interest rates and monetary policy has been studied for a
long time and, for example, since the seminal paper of Mankiw and Miron
(1986), a signiÖcant number of papers have studied the relationship between
monetary policy and the rational expectations theory....
Therefore, it is useful to use groups of consumers instead of countries as a basis for identifying international
segments (Jain 1989). Within a segment and regarding a particular ―culture-independent‖ product category (e.g.,
fashion, cars, luxuries), consumer behaviors do not vary across cultures or countries (Dawar and Parker 1994).
For example, information search and exchange can be regarded as ―universal‖ consumer behaviors and can be
observed in all cultures (Dawar and Parker 1994; Murdock 1945).
The book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences is designed to help under-
graduate and PhD students, postdocs, and professionals to ﬁ nd quick solu-
tions for common problems in data analysis in earth sciences. The book
provides a minimum amount of theoretical background, but then tries to
teach the application of all methods by examples. The software MATLAB
is used since it provides numerous ready-to-use algorithms for most meth-
ods of data analysis, but also gives the opportunity to modify and expand
the existing routines and even develop new software.
During the past twenty-five years, numerous research studies
conducted in several fields have identified various psychosocial
factors as predictors of health and mental health status. These
include: (a) stress, (b) social support and social networks, (c)
competence, (d) socioeconomic status and (e) coping.’-&dquo; For
example, loss of a spouse (stress) may be related to depression
for one individual and high blood pressure for another person,
while a third person may experience no significant effects on
his or her well-being.
Institutional gaps at the country level can be immense. Too often, they have
included a lack of documented rights claimed by local people and weak con-
sultation processes that have led to uncompensated loss of land rights, espe-
cially by vulnerable groups; a limited capacity to assess a proposed project’s
technical and economic viability; and a limited capacity to assess or enforce
environmental and social safeguards.
Such problems are not due to a lack of potential.
As an example, suppose an insurer wrote a $400 commercial liability policy lasting one year,
effective October 1, 2000. By December 31, 2000, only one quarter of the policy term would
have expired, so under a “deferral-matching” approach only one quarter, i.e., $100, of the
premium should be recognized as income.
These deferral-matching approaches generally utilize an account known as “written premiums”.
Written premiums for a policy during a reported period are generally defined as the amount of
premium charged for that policy during the reporting period.
The earth's magnetic field has two magnetic poles. These magnetic poles are
the magnetic South Pole and North Pole.
The earth's magnetic poles are located at approximately 12° offset from the
earth's geographical poles. At the magnetic North Pole, the gridlines of the
magnetic field are vertical to the earth's surface. The needle of a compass, for
example, will point to this magnetic pole.
At the magnetic South Pole, the magnetic lines leave the earth’s surface. The
earth’s magnetic field does not run parallel to the earth’s surface.
What does it mean to say that the corporate executive has a "social responsibility" in his
capacity as businessman? If this statement is not pure rhetoric, it must mean that he is to act in
some way that is not in the interest of his employers. For example, that he is to refrain from
increasing the price of the product in order to contribute to the social objective of preventing
inflation, even though a price increase would be in the best interests of the corporation. Or
that he is to make expenditures on reducing pollution beyond the amount that is...
We were both of us not a little stiff as the result of sleeping out in the
open all that night, for even in Grand Canary the dew-fall and the comparative
chill of darkness are not to be trifled with. For myself on these
occasions I like a bit of a run as an early refresher. But here on this rough
ground in the middle of the island there were not three yards of level to
be found, and so as Coppinger proceeded to go through some sort of
dumb-bell exercises with a couple of lumps of bristly lava, I followed his
example. Coppinger has done a...
That sticky wages and inﬂation targeting are uneasy bedfellows is easy to see.
When wages are sticky, an inﬂation targeting central bank in eﬀect targets the real
wage. This produces ineﬃcient outcomes when shocks occur which require an adjust-
ment to the real wage (Erceg, Henderson and Levin (2000).) For example, suppose
a shock - a positive oil price shock, say - occurs which reduces the value marginal
product of labor. Preventing a large fall in employment under these circumstances
References to Department of the Treasury circulars hereafter will be to the current edition and will
be abbreviated, such as DC 530 and DCPD 3-80. References to the Code of Federal Regulations will
be by title number and section number, for example, 31 CFR 315.25.
Wherever in the text references to bonds indicate that the securities being referred to are of the accrual
type, the term "bonds" includes United States Savings Notes.
References to Internal Revenue Service Rulings will be to the Cumulative Bulletin for the year in
which the ruling was issued.
Foundations of International Macroeconomics is an innovative text that offers the first integrative modern treatment of the core issues in open economy macroeconomics and finance. With its clear and accessible style, it is suitable for first-year graduate macroeconomics courses as well as graduate courses in international macroeconomics and finance. Each chapter incorporates an extensive and eclectic array of empirical evidence. For the beginning student, these examples provide motivation and aid in understanding the practical value of the economic models developed.
Recent advances in data collection and data storage techniques enable
marketing researchers to study the characteristics of a large range of
transactions and purchases, in particular the effects of household-specific
characteristics and marketing-mix variables.
This book presents the most important and practically relevant quantitative
models for marketing research. Each model is presented in detail
with a self-contained discussion, which includes: a demonstration of the
mechanics of the model, empirical analysis, real-world examples, and
interpretation of results and findings.
The second edition of "Model Predictive Control" provides a thorough introduction to theoretical and practical aspects of the most commonly used MPC strategies. It bridges the gap between the powerful but often abstract techniques of control researchers and the more empirical approach of practitioners. The book demonstrates that a powerful technique does not always require complex control algorithms. Many new exercises and examples have also been added throughout.