An Empirical Investigation of International Consumer Market Segmentation Decisions They may also be more effective at exerting voice to manage agent
behavior, even without the exit option that school choice policies provide (Hirschman,
1970). Finally, student composition may operate as an employment amenity for teachers and
administrators, reducing the salaries that the school must pay and increasing the quality of
teachers that can be hired for any fixed salary (Antos and Rosen, 1975).
AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF TURNOVER INTENTIONS OF INTERNAL AUDITORS Amenities could either increase or reduce the
extent of effectiveness sorting relative to this pure case, though the latter seems more likely.22
If, as the hedonics literature implies, schools are one of the more important determinants of
neighborhood desirability (see, e.g., Reback, 2001;
This paper presents empirical studies and closely corresponding theoretical models of the performance of a chart parser exhaustively parsing the Penn Treebank with the Treebank’s own CFG grammar. We show how performance is dramatically affected by rule representation and tree transformations, but little by top-down vs. bottom-up strategies.
The process which has resulted in this book began many decades ago when,
as an undergraduate student, I found myself asking the question, ‘What did
the Romans think they were doing when they created the Roman Empire?’
For many years this question lurked in the background of my thoughts
as I worked on Roman history more generally and on Roman Spain in
particular, not least because itwas not clear tome howsuch a questionmight
be answered.What follows is, I hope, if not an answer, at least a contribution
We investigate the empirical behavior of ngram discounts within and across domains. When a language model is trained and evaluated on two corpora from exactly the same domain, discounts are roughly constant, matching the assumptions of modiﬁed Kneser-Ney LMs. However, when training and test corpora diverge, the empirical discount grows essentially as a linear function of the n-gram count. We adapt a Kneser-Ney language model to incorporate such growing discounts, resulting in perplexity improvements over modiﬁed Kneser-Ney and Jelinek-Mercer baselines. ...
Paraphrase generation is an important task that has received a great deal of interest recently. Proposed data-driven solutions to the problem have ranged from simple approaches that make minimal use of NLP tools to more complex approaches that rely on numerous language-dependent resources. Despite all of the attention, there have been very few direct empirical evaluations comparing the merits of the different approaches.
We present an empirical study of the applicability of Probabilistic Lexicalized Tree Insertion Grammars (PLTIG), a lexicalized counterpart to Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars (PCFG), to problems in stochastic naturallanguage processing. Comparing the performance of PLTIGs with non-hierarchical N-gram models and PCFGs, we show that PLTIG combines the best aspects of both, with language modeling capability comparable to N-grams, and improved parsing performance over its nonlexicalized counterpart. Furthermore, training of PLTIGs displays faster convergence than PCFGs. ...
The Effectiveness of Antidumping Measures under the Byrd Amendment: Some Empirical Evidence for Catfish includes Imperfect Competition in Agricultural International Trade, Vietnamese catfish industry globalizes, Antidumping measurement – definition and investigation process.
FRAMING THEORY’S EMPIRE started life as a "book event"--an online, roundtable-style symposium on THEORY’S EMPIRE (Columbia UP, 2005). Two dozen contributors offered reviews, criticism, and commentary. Now in book form, it includes a preface by Scott McLemee and afterthoughts from THEORY’S EMPIRE’S editors. WHAT OTHERS HAVE SAID . . . As the Theory Era draws to a close, we need more than ever intelligent
Tham khảo sách 'mental disorders - theoretical and empirical perspectives edited by robert woolfolk and lesley allen', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
In this paper, we describe an empirical study of Chinese chunking on a corpus, which is extracted from UPENN Chinese Treebank-4 (CTB4). First, we compare the performance of the state-of-the-art machine learning models. Then we propose two approaches in order to improve the performance of Chinese chunking. 1) We propose an approach to resolve the special problems of Chinese chunking. This approach extends the chunk tags for every problem by a tag-extension function. 2) We propose two novel voting methods based on the characteristics of chunking task.
In this paper we present a new approach to controlling the behaviour of a natural language generation system by correlating internal decisions taken during free generation of a wide range of texts with the surface stylistic characteristics of the resulting outputs, and using the correlation to control the generator. This contrasts with the generate-andtest architecture adopted by most previous empirically-based generation approaches, offering a more efficient, generic and holistic method of generator control. ...
This paper presents a status quo of an ongoing research study of collocations – an essential linguistic phenomenon having a wide spectrum of applications in the ﬁeld of natural language processing. The core of the work is an empirical evaluation of a comprehensive list of automatic collocation extraction methods using precision-recall measures and a proposal of a new approach integrating multiple basic methods and statistical classiﬁcation.
This paper describes an empirical study of the “Information Synthesis” task, deﬁned as the process of (given a complex information need) extracting, organizing and inter-relating the pieces of information contained in a set of relevant documents, in order to obtain a comprehensive, non redundant report that satisﬁes the information need.
The processes through which readers evoke mental representations of phonological forms from print constitute a hotly debated and controversial issue in current psycholinguistics. In this paper we present a computational analysis of the grapho-phonological system of written French, and an empirical validation of some of the obtained descriptive statistics.
We refine and extend prior views of the description, purposes, and contexts-of-use of acknowledgment acts through empirical examination of the use of acknowledgments in task-based conversation. We distinguish three broad classes of acknowledgments (other--*ackn, self--*other--*ackn, and self+ackn) and present a catalogue of 13 patterns within these classes that account for the specific uses of acknowledgment in the corpus.
The tales here told are written, not to glorify war, but to nourish patriotism. They represent an effort to renew
in popular memory the great traditions of the Imperial race to which we belong.
The history of the Empire of which we are subjects--the story of the struggles and sufferings by which it has
been built up--is the best legacy which the past has bequeathed to us. But it is a treasure strangely neglected.
The State makes primary education its anxious care, yet it does not make its own history a vital part of that
education. There is real danger that for the average youth...
In the connection of the church and state, I have considered the former as subservient only, and relative, to the
latter; a salutary maxim, if in fact, as well as in narrative, it had ever been held sacred. The Oriental
philosophy of the Gnostics, the dark abyss of predestination and grace, and the strange transformation of the
Eucharist from the sign to the substance of Christ's body, ^1 I have purposely abandoned to the curiosity of
This dissertation empirically investigates the potential lead lag relationship between spot and future markets in three South East Asian countries, namely Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. It attempts to prove whether the lead–lag relationship exist between the two markets in each country individually and whether future market returns lead spot market returns in these countries.
A new European civilization emerged in which monarchs competed for supremacy with the nobility and the Roman Catholic Church. The Byzantine Empire became the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church and developed its own unique civilization.