Employment discrimination

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  • After reading this chapter, you will be able to answer the following questions: When may an employee be legally fired? What are the federal laws governing employment situations? What are the legal requirements for a charge of sex discrimination? What is the difference between discrimination based on disparate treatment and discrimination based on disparate impact? What are the legal requirements for a charge of sexual harassment?...

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  • After reading this chapter, you will be able to answer the following questions: What does it mean to be an at-will employee? What are the federal laws governing employment discrimination? What are the legal requirements for a charge of sex discrimination or sexual harassment? What categories of people are protected from discrimination?,...

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  • Concept taxonomies offer a powerful means for organizing knowledge, but this organization must allow for many overlapping and fine-grained perspectives if a general-purpose taxonomy is to reflect concepts as they are actually employed and reasoned about in everyday usage. We present here a means of bootstrapping finely-discriminating taxonomies from a variety of different starting points, or seeds, that are acquired from three different sources: WordNet, ConceptNet and the web at large.

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  • In this paper, we propose a novel discriminative language model, which can be applied quite generally. Compared to the well known N-gram language models, discriminative language models can achieve more accurate discrimination because they can employ overlapping features and nonlocal information. However, discriminative language models have been used only for re-ranking in specific applications because negative examples are not available.

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  • In the thousands of English language articles, essays, and books by researchers and practitioners writing about grief following a death, there is little about African American grief (Barrett, 1995). This is not to say that a small number of studies cannot be immensely important. We have benefited from reading the works that are in the literature and that we cite at a number of places in this book, for example, Barrett (1995), Brice (1999), Hines (1986, 1991), Kalish and Reynolds (1981), and Meagher and Bell (1993).

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  • We do not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of any status or condition protected by applicable federal or state law. Consistent with our affiliation with the Churches of Christ and our faith heritage, we do seek to hire and promote persons who support the goals and mission of the University, including, but not limited to, those who are members of the Churches of Christ. We respect the inherent worth of each member of the community. We do not engage in any forms of harassment of others.

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  • The ability of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to distinguish betweensimilaraminoacidsiscrucial foraccuratetrans-lation of the genetic code. Saccharomyces cerevisiae seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) employs tRNA-dependent recognition of its cognate amino acid serine [Lenhard, B., Filipic, S., Landeka, I., Skrtic, I., So¨ll, D. & Weygand-Durasevic, I. (1997)J. Biol. Chem.272, 1136–1141]. Herewe show that dimeric SerRS enzyme complexed with one molecule of tRNA Ser is more specific and more efficient in catalyzing seryl-adenylate formation than the apoenzyme alone. ...

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  • Green fluorescence. Further, the orange fluorescence can be used to detect second important fluorescing photopigment respectively phycoeritrin. Phycoeritrin is typical in many Synechococcus spp. and some picoeukaryotes, so Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and picoeukaryotes can easy be discriminated in a plot Red vs. Orange fluorescence (Figure 3).

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  • The technique can be applied for chlorophyll level monitoring in basic photosynthesis research, agriculture, horticulture, and forestry. Abiotic stress (water deficit, salinity, heat, heavy metals soil contamination, intense light, etc) affects significantly crop growth and yield in agricultural areas all over the world. Thus, it is imperative to study their effect upon the crops and discriminate among abiotic stresses using new noninvasive and nondestructive remote sensing precision diagnostic techniques.

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  • Despite the gatekeeper role that these scoring systems play regarding access to credit, housing, insurance, utilities, and employment, as well as pricing for those essentials, exactly how the formulas perform the transformation from credit report to credit score is a closely guarded secret. For consumers, regulators, and even industry participants who rely on the computations in their decision-making, the scoring models largely remain a “black box.

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  • The actual discrimination in the market place against a minority group depends on the combined discrimination of employers, workers, consum- ers, schools, and governments. The analysis shows that sometimes the environment greatly softens, while at other times it magnifies, the impact of a given amount of prejudice. For example, the discrepancy in wages be- tween equally productive blacks and whites, or women and men, would be much smaller than the degree of prejudice against blacks and women when many companies can efficiently specialize in employing mainly blacks or women....

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  • A literature has developed on whether discrimination in the marketplace due to prejudice disappears in the long run. Whether employers who do not want to discriminate will eventually compete away all discriminating employ- ers depends not only on the distribution of tastes for discrimination among potential employers, but critically also on the nature of firm production functions. Of greater significance empirically is the long run discrimination by employees and customers, who are far more important sources of market discrimination than employers.

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  • A novel theoretical development in recent years is the analysis of the consequences of stereotyped reasoning or statistical discrimination (see Phelps [1972], and Arrow [1973]). This analysis suggests that the beliefs of employers, teachers, and other influential groups that minority members are less productive can be self-fulfilling, for these beliefs may cause minor- ities to underinvest in education, training, and work skills, such as punctual- ity. The underinvestment does make them less productive (see a good recent analysis by Loury [1992])....

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  • Discrimination against outsiders has always existed, but with the exception of a few discussions of the employment of women (see Edgeworth [1922], and Faucett [1918]), economists wrote little on this subject before the 1950s. I began to worry about racial, religious, and gender discrimination while a graduate student, and used the concept of discrimination coeffi- cients to organize my approach to prejudice and hostility to members of particular groups.

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  • Instead of making the common assumptions that employers only consider the productivity of employees, that workers ignore the characteristics of those with whom they work, and that customers only care about the quali- ties of the goods and services provided, discrimination coefficients incorpo- rate the influence of race, gender, and other personal characteristics on tastes and attitudes. Employees may refuse to work under a woman or a black even when they are well paid to do so, or a customer may prefer not to deal with a black car salesman.

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  • Presumably, the amount of observable discrimination against minorities in wages and employment depends not only on tastes for discrimination, but also on other variables, such as the degree of competition and civil rights legislation. However, aside from the important theory of compensating differentials originated by Adam Smith, and a few major studies like Myr- dal’s American Dilemma [1944], there was little else available in the 1950s to build on to analyze how prejudice and other variables interact. ...

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  • The field of antiviral therapy—both the number of antiviral drugs and our understanding of their optimal use—continues to lag behind the field of antibacterial drug treatment, in which 70 years of experience have now been accumulated, but significant progress has been made in recent years on new drugs for several viral infections. The development of antiviral drugs poses several challenges. Viruses replicate intracellularly and often employ host cell enzymes, macromolecules, and organelles for synthesis of viral particles.

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  • Two key phenomena in occupation segregation in the South African labour market are examined – discrimination and acquired human capital, and it is argued here that these perpetuate the inequalities observed in the labour market. The influence of inequities in acquired human capital on educational attainment is examined, and the related influence on labour market prospects and the impact of qualification differences and other discriminatory factors on employment in South Africa are explored, in light of the key role that higher education has to play....

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  • Johns Hopkins University is committed to recruiting, supporting, and fostering a diverse community of outstanding faculty, staff, and students. As such, Johns Hopkins does not discriminate on the basis of gender, marital status, pregnancy, race, color, ethnicity, national origin, age, disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, veteran status, or other legally protected characteristic in any student program or activity administered by the university or with regard to admission or employment.

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