Xem 1-20 trên 114 kết quả Employment structure
  • Most statistical machine translation systems employ a word-based alignment model. In this paper we demonstrate that word-based alignment is a major cause of translation errors. We propose a new alignment model based on shallow phrase structures, and the structures can be automatically acquired from parallel corpus. This new model achieved over 10% error reduction for our spoken language translation task.

    pdf7p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 11 4   Download

  • While it is generally accepted that many translation phenomena are correlated with linguistic structures, employing linguistic syntax for translation has proven a highly non-trivial task. The key assumption behind many approaches is that translation is guided by the source and/or target language parse, employing rules extracted from the parse tree or performing tree transformations. These approaches enforce strict constraints and might overlook important translation phenomena that cross linguistic constituents. ...

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  • This paper demonstrates that generating arguments in natural language requires planning at an abstract level, and that the appropriate abstraction cannot be captured by approaches based solely upon coherence relations. An abstraction based planning system is presented which employs operators motivated by empirical study and rhetorical maxims. These operators include a subset of traditional deductive rules of inference, argumentation theoretic rules of refutation, and inductive reasoning patterns. ...

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  • Seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) is a class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that catalyzes serine activation and its transfer to cognate tRNA Ser . Previ-ous biochemical and structural studies have revealed that bacterial- and methanogenic-type SerRSs employ different strategies of substrate recogni-tion.

    pdf14p media19 06-03-2013 20 2   Download

  • Text mining and data harvesting algorithms have become popular in the computational linguistics community. They employ patterns that specify the kind of information to be harvested, and usually bootstrap either the pattern learning or the term harvesting process (or both) in a recursive cycle, using data learned in one step to generate more seeds for the next.

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  • Chinese characters that are similar in their pronunciations or in their internal structures are useful for computer-assisted language learning and for psycholinguistic studies. Although it is possible for us to employ imagebased methods to identify visually similar characters, the resulting computational costs can be very high. We propose methods for identifying visually similar Chinese characters by adopting and extending the basic concepts of a proven Chinese input method--Cangjie. We present the methods, illustrate how they work, and discuss their weakness in this paper. ...

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  • This paper proposes a new class-based m e t h o d to estimate the strength of association in word co-occurrence for the purpose of structural disambiguation. To deal with sparseness of data, we use a conceptual dictionary as the source for acquiring upper classes of the words related in t h e co-occurrence, and then use t-scores to determine a pair of classes to be employed for calculating the strength of association. We have applied our m e t h o d to determining dependency relations in Japanese and prepositional phrase attachments in English. ...

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  • Ion mobility MS was employed to study the structure of thebB2B3-crystal-lin heterodimer following its detection by ESI-TOF MS. The results dem-onstrate that the heterodimer has a similar cross-section (3 165 A˚ 2 ) and structure to the bB2B2-crystallin homodimer.

    pdf11p cosis54 09-12-2012 16 1   Download

  • Two key phenomena in occupation segregation in the South African labour market are examined – discrimination and acquired human capital, and it is argued here that these perpetuate the inequalities observed in the labour market. The influence of inequities in acquired human capital on educational attainment is examined, and the related influence on labour market prospects and the impact of qualification differences and other discriminatory factors on employment in South Africa are explored, in light of the key role that higher education has to play....

    pdf0p quatet 14-01-2013 18 1   Download

  • The variation in speech due to dialect is a factor which significantly impacts speech system performance. In this study, we investigate effective methods of combining acoustic and language information to take advantage of (i) speaker based acoustic traits as well as (ii) content based word selection across the text sequence. For acoustics, a GMM based system is employed and for text based dialect classification, we proposed n-gram language models combined with Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) based dialect classifiers. ...

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  • In Semantic Role Labeling (SRL), it is reasonable to globally assign semantic roles due to strong dependencies among arguments. Some relations between arguments significantly characterize the structural information of argument structure. In this paper, we concentrate on thematic hierarchy that is a rank relation restricting syntactic realization of arguments. A loglinear model is proposed to accurately identify thematic rank between two arguments.

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  • We present a new grammatical formalism called Constraint Dependency G r a m m a r (CDG) in which every grammatical rule is given as a constraint on wordto-word modifications. CDG parsing is formalized as a constraint satisfaction problem over a finite domain so that efficient constraint-propagation algorithms can be employed to reduce structural ambiguity without generating individual parse trees. The weak generative capacity and the computational complexity of CDG parsing are also discussed.

    pdf8p bungio_1 03-05-2013 16 1   Download

  • The TOEIC test is the choice of more than 2 million examinees a year and is recognized by thousands of corporations. As a fair and objective measure of English proficiency, the TOEIC test will enable you to:  verify your current level of English proficiency  qualify for a new position and/or promotion in your company  enhance your professional credentials  monitor your progress in English  set your own learning goals  involve your employer in advancing your English ability

    pdf50p johnny_ray1009 03-03-2011 291 195   Download

  • Molecules, small structures composed of atoms, are essential substances for lives. However, we didn’t have the clear answer to the following questions until the 1920s: why molecules can exist in stable as rigid networks between atoms, and why molecules can change into different types of molecules. The most important event for solving the puzzles is the discovery of the quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is the theory for small particles such as electrons and nuclei, and was applied to hydrogen molecule by Heitler and London at 1927.

    pdf212p qsczaxewd 22-09-2012 70 35   Download

  • Ebook Business english management about Management include sections: Types of employment, team building, company structure, quitting a job, getting fired, company development, financials.

    pdf63p emelikov 19-03-2014 76 32   Download

  • The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by Technical Committee B/525, Building and civil engineering structures, to Subcommittee B/525/4, upon which the following bodies were represented: Association of Consulting Engineers British Cement Association British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd. British Masonry Society Building Employers Confederation Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment) Department of the Environment (Construction Directorate)

    pdf38p kien098 30-12-2010 76 18   Download

  • The history of Computational Fluid Dynamics, or CFD for short,, started in the early 1970’s. Around that time, it became an acronym for a combination of physics, numerical mathematics, and, to some extent, computer sciences employed to simulate fluid flows. The beginning of CFD was triggered by the availability of increasingly more powerful mainframes and the advances in CFD are still tightly coupled to the evolution of computer technology.

    pdf470p nhatkyvodanh 11-08-2012 34 13   Download

  • This book is idented for three groups: students and professors of structural and ocean engineering, engineers and scientists in academic institutions, goverment laboratories, and inductries involved in research on offshore installations , espetically fluid structure soil interaction, and practicing professional engineers who considers conceptual design and need to employ dynamic analysis to evaluate facilities contructed offshore

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  • Introduction: The ceramic oxide known as ‘beta alumina’ exhibits remarkably high conductivity of sodium ions and, as a consequence, has been adopted as a key component in batteries that employ liquid sodium as the active material at the negative electrode. Most rechargeable (or ‘secondary’) batteries comprise solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. A separator is placed in the electrolyte between the plates to prevent a short circuit.

    pdf19p congdat261 06-12-2010 72 11   Download

  • Epicyclic Gear Trains Gear trains are used to transmit motion and/or power from one rotating shaft to another. An enormous number of gear trains are used in machinery such as automobile transmissions, machine tool gear boxes, robot manipulators, and so on. Perhaps, the earliest known application of gear trains is the South Pointing Chariot invented by the Chinese around 2600 B.C. The chariot employed an ingenious differential gear train such that a figure mounted on top of the chariot always pointed to the south as the chariot was towed from one place to another.

    pdf33p goixanh 27-09-2010 49 6   Download

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