When in the closed position, the orifice is obscured by the anterior and posterior leaflets.
The anterior comprises about one half to two thirds of this area, the posterior comprises
about one third to one half of this area. The point of attachment of the anterior leaflet
comprises one third of the circumference of the annulus (the fibrous area) and the posterior
leaflets comprises two thirds of the circumference of the annulus (the muscular area). The
fibrous support of the anterior leaflet is fixed, the muscular support of the posterior leaflet
can enlarge and does so when...
Ultrasound nowadays is a well established diagnostic and therapeutic tool in diseases within
several medical specialities. Furthermore, technical improvement of ultrasound equipment
and continuous basic and clinical ultrasound research have increased the use of ultrasound
within new fields.
In gastroenterology, ultrasound has been used for several decades to perform B-mode
imaging of the abdominal organs. However, the development of new techniques, e.g.
(BQ) Part 2 book "A Manual of laboratory and diagnostic tests" presents the following contents: Immunodiagnostic studies, nuclear medicine studies, cytologic, histologic and genetic studies, endoscopic studies, ultrasound studies, pulmonary function, arterial blood gases (ABGs), and electrolyte studies,...
Today, computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly
used imaging method in the assessment of pancreatic
tumors. The sensitivity of CT in detection of pancreatic
tumors is more than 90% when direct and indirect signs
are used for diagnosis. However, the potential to differentiate
exocrine (non-endocrine) tumors of the pancreas
is limited. CT is used in these lesions to perform an adequate
staging, especially for surgical purposes. The
operative resectability, primarily in regard to vessels,
lymph node metastasis and hepatic metastasis, has to be
(BQ) Part 1 book "Ultrasonography of the pancreas" presents the following contents: Ultrasound imaging, transabdominal ultrasonography of the pancreas, endoscopic ultrasonography of the pancreas, percutaneous ultrasound guided interventional procedures in pancreatic diseases, intraoperative ultrasonography of the pancreas, pancreatic anatomy, variants and pseudolesions of the pancreas.
Evaluation of patients with MALT lymphoma follows the pattern (Table 105-11) for staging a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In particular, patients with gastric lymphoma need to have studies performed to document the presence or absence of H. pylori infection. Endoscopic studies including ultrasound can help define the extent of gastric involvement. Most patients with MALT lymphoma have a good prognosis, with a 5-year survival of ~75%. In patients with a low IPI score, the 5-year survival is ~90%, while it drops to ~40% in patients with a high IPI score.