When you finish this chapter, you should: Define a cartel, model how a cartel can make their members large sums of money, show why cartels are not typically stable and describe the conditions necessary for creating cartel stability, evaluate whether OPEC qualifies as a cartel, summarize the history of inflation-adjusted oil and gasoline prices.
In recent years, enormous strides have been made in the art and science of
credit risk measurement and management. Much of the energy in this area
has resulted from dissatisfaction with traditional approaches to credit risk
measurement and with the current Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
Inverter Technology variable power supply voltage and frequency adjustment can not be fixed, the power supply voltage and frequency are required to use energy. Advantages of this technology is microwave lighter, smaller but wider oven cavity, energy and cooking time, especially as a result of better food.
The earthquake motion is assigned
classified by Japan's land area is classified into three categories according to level
seismic risk and adjust the seismic motion by using the regional adjustment factor of 1.0, 0.85
and 0.7 depending on the classification of the area.
Meanwhile, the studies to calculate seismic waveforms unique to the target area of seismic
design has been conducted in recent years.
About a year ago I was asked by a firm of insurance loss adjusters to
investigate the possibility of reducing the anticipated overrun caused by an
explosion at a power station. Based on previous experience of similar
problems, I asked the contractors (a firm of international design and build
constructors) to let me examine the critical path network which formed the
basis of the computer-generated bar charts previously sent to the loss
The design theorem of traditional zoom lens uses mechanical motion to precisely adjust the
separations between individual or groups of lenses; therefore, it is more complicated and
requires multiple optical elements. Conventionally, the types of zoom lens can be divided
into optical zoom and digital zoom.
The MATLAB BVP solver of bvp4c is introduced as a Residual control based, adaptive mesh
solver. An adaptive mesh solver is an alternative approach to that of a uniform mesh, which
would specify a uniform grid of data points xi over the interval [xi, xi+1] and solve
accordingly. The adaptive solver will adjust the mesh points at each stage in the iterative
procedure, distributing them to points where they are most needed. This can lead to obvious
advantages in terms of computational and storage costs as well as allowing control over the
Steganography is the art and science of communicating which hides the existence of the communication. Steganographic technologies are an important part of the future of Internet security and privacy on open systems such as the Internet. This book's focus is on a relatively new field of study in Steganography and it takes a look at this technology by introducing the readers various concepts of Steganography and Steganalysis. The book has a brief history of steganography and it surveys steganalysis methods considering their modeling techniques....
This chapter provides an overview of the classical measures of risk-
adjusted portfolio performance. We ﬁrst describe the general logic that
lies behind all of the measures, and then deﬁne the individual mea-
sures. We then discuss the theoretical properties of the measures in
more detail. Finally, we look at empirical estimation of the measures
on actual managed portfolios, and review the empirical evidence based
on the classical measures. The main idea in most of the classical measures of investment perfor-
mance is quite simple.
The problems created for small business owners by the current rise in energy costs are
two-fold. First, energy costs have increased rapidly over the last two years and even more so
in the last six months. Small business owners are not able to adjust the price of their goods
and services quickly enough to match the steep energy cost increases without hurting their
customer base. Second, owners are not able to change business practices fast enough to offset
Moreover, school financial aid officials said that under
the Direct Loan Program they were also able to easily change the amount
of a loan if needed. For example, schools can adjust the amount of a
Direct Loan to reflect changes in students’ courseload or increases in grant
and scholarship aid—events that could affect the loan amount available to
borrowers. The fourth factor—ease of tracking student loans over time—
was important because the Direct Loan Program improved the loan
process for students.
This event is most important for the Social Network of Latin America and
the Caribbean. The network has allowed La Red Social to cooperate among
various countries in the struggle against poverty. It recently also completed
an important study of the potentials and the limitations of social funds.
Social funds, created as instruments of the social policy pursued by each
country, were designed to mobilize resources rapidly for the financing of
social action programs.
While the Broadbent and Daly study may provide useful insights on the potential for fiscal
adjustments to boost growth, its relevance to the current situation in the United States is
questionable. The vast majority of instances of fiscal adjustment took place during periods when
economies were near or above potential GDP. In only 6 of the 29 fiscal adjustments that were tax-
driven was the gap between potential and actual GDP even as large as one percentage point.
Wrist rests should not be needed with modern thin keyboards and
well-rounded desk edges. Anti -glare screens should be only a last
resort where the workstation cannot be arranged to avoid veiling
reflections on the VDU screen.
Just as some "ergonomic" equipment is not always necessary , the
extent of adjustments available in some products may not be
warranted. More adjustments does not necessarily mean better
ergonomics. A bewildering array of adjustment stalks now
protrudes from some "ergonomic" chairs.
The aim of ergonomic design is to satisfy as large a proportion of
the population as possible. This is usually not achieved by using
the mean values of the appropriate anthropometric dimensions.
Ideally, adjustability should be provided to cater for the wide
variability of certain critical dimensions among the population.
The adjustment ranges must then be carefully chosen. Even if a
dimension of a chair is not made adjustable, careful choice of the
best percentile on which to base the fixed dimension can minimise
discomfort among the population using the chair.
IMPEDANCE MATCHING NETWORKS
One of the most critical requirements in the design of high-frequency electronic circuits is that the maximum possible signal energy is transferred at each point. In other words, the signal should propagate in a forward direction with a negligible echo (ideally, zero). Echo signal not only reduces the power available but also deteriorates the signal quality due to the presence of multiple re¯ections. As noted in the preceding chapter, impedance can be transformed to a new value by adjusting the turn ratio of a transformer that couples it with the circuit.
Motivated by the need of energy-efficiency improvements, process optimization, soft-start capability and numerous other environmental benefits, it may be desirable to operate induction motors for many applications at continuously adjustable speeds. The induction motor drives can provide high productivity with energy efficiency in different industrial applications and are the basis for modern automation. This book provides an account of this developing subject through such topics as modelling, noise, control techniques used for high-performance applications and diagnostics....
Motivation and Example Adaptive Filter Structure Performance and Robustness Issues Error and Energy Measures Robust Adaptive Filtering Energy Bounds and Passivity Relations Min-Max Optimality of Adaptive Gradient Algorithms Comparison of LMS and RLS Algorithms Time-Domain Feedback Analysis
Ali H. Sayed
University of California, Los Angeles
Bell Laboratories Lucent Technologies
Time-Domain Analysis • l2 −Stability and the Small Gain Condition • Energy Propagation in the Feedback Cascade • A Deterministic Convergence Analysis
20.10Filtered-Error Gradient Algorithms 20.
Green projects - particularly sustainable energy sources and clean technology - include multiple
technologies, at different stages of maturity, and require different types of financing vehicle. Most pension
funds are more interested in lower risk investments which provide a steady, inflation adjusted income
stream - with green bonds consequently gaining interest as an asset class, particularly - though not only -
with the SRI universe of institutional investors.
The pulp and paper industry is also one of the three sectors
(along with cement and steel) for which CEF made detailed parameter modifications to the
NEMS model used to produce AEO 1999. Modifications included adjustments to baseline
energy intensities and rates for annual improvements in energy intensity, which were adjusted
to reflect best-available sector-specific research.