Xem 1-20 trên 25 kết quả Energy intake
  • This report is one of a series that presents a comprehensive set of reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy U.S and Canadian populations. It is a product of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine working in cooperation with scientists from Canada.

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  • Abstract Man is an omnivore and originally met energy requirements by hunting and gathering. Man evolved in an environment of feast and famine: there were periods with either a positive or negative energy balance. As an introduction to human energetics, this book on energy balance in motion starts with a chapter on animal energetics. How do animals survive and reproduce in an environment with a variable food supply? The examples on animal energetics illustrate how animals grow, reproduce and survive periods of starvation.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Gene expression atlas of the mouse central nervous system: impact and interactions of age, energy intake and gender...

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  • Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer diagnosed in Western populations. Autopsy studies have shown that with increasing age, the majority of men will develop microscopic foci of cancer (often termed “latent” prostate cancer) and that this is true in populations that are at both high and low risk for the invasive form of the disease (1). However, only a small percentage of men will develop invasive prostate cancer. The prevalence of prostate cancer is, thus, very common; but to most men, prostate cancer will be only incidental to their health and death....

    pdf395p tom_123 15-11-2012 20 8   Download

  • Sports nutrition is often the missing piece in the athlete’s training regimen. The attention and effort are directed toward optimizing strength, speed, stamina, and recovery, but too often, nutrition is not the priority, resulting in performance impairment rather than enhancement. Sports medicine professionals need to be able to educate athletes on not only the what (food and drink), but also the why, when, where, and how much to consume. Athletes are bombarded with nutrition information, but much of what they read can be contradictory, confusing, or incorrect....

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  • The workplace as a health promotion setting Workplace health promotion (WHP) programmes, targeting physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits, are effective in improving health- related outcomes such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Enhancing employee productivity, improving corporate image and moderating medical care costs are some of the arguments that might foster senior management to initiate and invest in WHP programmes.

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  • Chapter 55 - Nutrition and health. Nutrition is the process of how the body takes in and utilizes food and other sources of nutrients. It is a fivepart process that includes intake, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and elimination. This chapter gives you an understanding of how a well-planned diet can lead to optimal health and well-being for your patients.

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  • Chapter 49 - Nutrition and special diets. Nutrition is the process of how the body takes in and utilizes food and other sources of nutrients. It is a fivepart process that includes intake, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and elimination. This chapter gives you an understanding of how a well-planned diet can lead to optimal health and well-being for your patients.

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  • The main operating cost for Reverse Osmosis plants is the cost for electricity. The energy recovery system supplied with the plant is therefore very important. A separate section below discusses energy recovery. Because we are asked so often, I have also included a section on the Operating Cost, as well as some Frequently Asked Questions.

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  • Although metabolites and energy balance have long been known to play roles in the regulation of food intake, the potential role of fatty acid metabolism in this process has been considered only recently. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to generate long-chain fatty acids in the cytoplasm, while the breakdown of fatty acids (h-oxidation) occurs in mitochondria and is regulated by carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), the rate-limiting step for the entry of fatty acids into the mitochondria....

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  • Low intakes of fiber tend to reflect low intakes of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Low intakes of calcium  tend to reflect low intakes of milk and milk products. Low intakes of vitamins A (as carotenoids) and C and magne­ sium tend to reflect low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Selecting fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low­fat and fat­free milk and milk products in the amounts suggested by the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan will provide adequate amounts of these nutrients.

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  • Overweight and obesity in the United States among adults and children has increased significantly over the last two decades. Those following typical American eating and activity patterns are likely to be consuming diets in excess of their energy requirements. However, caloric intake is only one side of the energy balance equation. Caloric expenditure needs to be in balance with caloric intake to maintain body weight and must exceed caloric intake to achieve weight loss (see tables 3 and 4).

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  • Water For adults, 1.0–1.5 mL water per kcal of energy expenditure is sufficient under usual conditions to allow for normal variations in physical activity, sweating, and solute load of the diet. Water losses include 50–100 mL/d in the feces, 500–1000 mL/d by evaporation or exhalation, and, depending on the renal solute load, ≥1000 mL/d in the urine. If external losses increase, intakes must increase accordingly to avoid underhydration. Fever increases water losses by approximately 200 mL/d per °C; diarrheal losses vary but may be as great as 5 L/d with severe diarrhea.

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  • Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Thiamine was the first B vitamin to be identified and is therefore also referred to as vitamin B1. Thiamine functions in the decarboxylation of αketoacids, such as pyruvate α-ketoglutarate, and branched-chain amino acids and thus is a source of energy generation. In addition, thiamine pyrophosphate acts as a coenzyme for a transketolase reaction that mediates the conversion of hexose and pentose phosphates.

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  • Energy balance and pathophysiology of weight loss. Food intake may be influenced by a wide variety of visual, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli as well as by genetic, psychological, and social factors. Absorption may be impaired because of pancreatic insufficiency, cholestasis, celiac sprue, intestinal tumors, radiation injury, inflammatory bowel disease, infection, or medication effect. These disease processes may be manifest as changes in stool frequency and consistency. Calories may also be lost due to vomiting or diarrhea, glucosuria in diabetes mellitus, or fistulous drainage.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 41. Weight Loss Weight Loss: Introduction Significant unintentional weight loss in a previously healthy individual is often a harbinger of underlying systemic disease. During the routine medical examination, changes in weight should always be assessed; loss of 5% of body weight over 6–12 months should prompt further evaluation. Physiology of Weight Regulation The normal individual maintains body weight at a remarkably stable "set point," given the wide variation in daily caloric intake and level of activity.

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  • Low-carbohydrate diets have been advocated for weight loss and to prevent obesity, but the long-term safety of these diets has not been determined. Methods We evaluated data on 82,802 women in the Nurses’ Health Study who had completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were used to calculate a low-carbohydrate-diet score, which was based on the percentage of energy as carbohydrate, fat, and protein (a higher score reflects a higher intake of fat and protein and a lower intake of carbohydrate).

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  • Metabolic integration of nutrient sensing in the central nervous system has been shown to be an important regulator of adiposity by affecting food intake and peripheral energy expenditure. Modulation of de novofatty acid synthetic flux by cytokines and nutrient availability plays an important role in this process.

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  • Whilst it is acknowledged that Australians are world leaders in pasture based grazing systems (one of the lowest cost methods of feeding cows), research indicates that these systems combined with partial mixed rations (PMR) and a low level of concentrates will result in improved milk production and utilisation of pasture (Bargo, Muller, Delahoy, Cassidy 2002). The implementation of a pasture based grazing system in isolation will leave the cow with an effective shortage of energy due to relatively low total dietary intakes.

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