The world faces serious difficulties in obtaining the energy that will be needed in coming decades for a growing population, especially given the problem of climate change caused by fossil fuel use. This book presents a view of nuclear energy as an important carbon-free energy option. It discusses the nuclear fuel cycle, the types of reactors used today and proposed for the future, nuclear waste disposal, reactor accidents and reactor safety, nuclear weapon proliferation, and the cost of electric power.
This book includes solar energy, wind energy, hybrid systems, biofuels, energy management and efficiency, optimization of renewable energy systems and much more. Subsequently, the book presents the physical and technical principles of promising ways of utilizing renewable energies. The authors provide the important data and parameter sets for the major possibilities of renewable energies utilization which allow an economic and environmental assessment.
There is a basic law in thermodynamics; the law of conservation of energy, which states that
energy may neither be created nor destroyed just can be transformed. Nature is an expert using
this physics fundamental law favouring life and evolution of species all around the planet, it
can be said that we are accustomed to live under this law that we do not pay attention to its
existence and how it influence our lives.
Every president since Richard Nixon has called for America’s independence from oil, but
Washington gridlock has prevented action again and again. If we want to create a more secure
energy future, and protect consumers at the pump, that has to change. When President Obama
took office, America imported 11 million barrels of oil a day. Today, he pledged that by a little
more than a decade from now, we will have cut that by one-third, and put forward a plan to secure
America’s energy future by producing more oil at home and reducing our...
In this chapter, students will be able to: Know the regulatory points in glycolysis (Hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1, pyruvate kinase), be able to name the allosteric inhibitors and allosteric activators involved in the regulation of each enzyme, understand the relationship between thes allosteric activators/inbitors to the energy state of the cell,...
After studying this chapter you will be able to know the binding change mechanism of ATP formation. Know the properties of the ADP/ATP translocator and the Pi/H+ symport. Understand how the transport of these compounds across the inner envelope relates to PMF and energy consumption. Know how ETC and oxidative Phosphorylation are regulated by ADP and ATP levels.
In this chapter, you will learn to: Know that photosynthesis is broken up into two parts: Light rxns and carbon fixation, know the names of the major components of the chloroplast and the functions and properties of these components, know how light energy is converted to chemical energy, understand how a photon can excite an electron to a high energy orbital, know what happens when the electron returns to ground state,...
Lecture Electromechanical energy conversion include all of the following: Magnetic circuits and magnetic materials, electromechanical energy conversion principles, introduction to rotating machines, synchronous machines, polyphase induction machines, dc machines, variable – reluctance machines and stepping motors, single and two – phase motors, speed and torque control.
Lecture Biology - Chapter 6 provides knowledge of energy, enzymes, and metabolism. In this chapter, students will be able to understand: What physical principles underlie biological energy transformations? What is the role of ATP in biochemical energetics? What are enzymes? How do enzymes work? How do enzymes work?
Chapter 4 - Energy analysis of closed systems. The objectives of Chapter 4 are to: Examine the moving boundary work or P dV work commonly encountered in reciprocating devices such as automotive engines and compressors, identify the first law of thermodynamics as simply a statement of the conservation of energy principle for closed (fixed mass) systems, develop the general energy balance applied to closed systems,...
Chapter 4 - Energy analysis of closed systems. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Identify the first law of thermodynamics as simply a statement of the conservation of energy principle for closed (fixed mass) systems, identify the types of energy that may be transferred to or from a closed (fixed mass) thermodynamic system, develop a step-by-step intuitive approach to the application of the conservation of energy principle,...
Chapter 5 - Mass and energy analysis of control volumes. The objectives of Chapter 5 are to: Apply the first law of thermodynamics as the statement of the conservation of energy principle to open systems and control volumes, develop the conservation of mass principle, apply the conservation of mass principle to various systems including steady- and unsteady-flow control volumes,...
This chapter presents the following content: Forces and torques in magnetic field systems, energy balance, energy in singly – excited magnetic field systems, determination of magnetic force and torque from energy and coenergy, multiply – excited magnetic field systems, forces and torques in systems with permanent magnets, dynamic equations, analytical techniques.
After studying this chapter you will be able to understand: Explain why falling birthrates mean that we are not likely to run out of natural resources, describe why using a mix of energy sources is efficient, even if some of them are quite costly, discuss why running out of oil would not mean running out of energy, show how the profit motive can encourage resource conservation, relate how to use property rights to prevent deforestation and species extinction.
I was delighted when Butterworth-Heinemann asked me to
edit a new edition of Mechanical Engineer’s Reference Book.
Upon looking at its predecessor, it was clear that it had served
the community well, but a major update was required. The
book clearly needed to take account of modern methods and
The philosophy behind the book is that it will provide a
qualified engineer with sufficient information so that he or she
can identify the basic principles of a subject and be directed to
further reading if required.
On the simplest level, making optimal financial decisions has to do with buying assets that add value and advoid those that don't. For example, you need to decide whether to keep using your old, inefficient photocopying machine or buy an expensive new one that works faster, doesn't break down as often, and uses less ink and energy. The finance question about these two alternatives is: Which- keeing the old photocopier or buying a new one- adds more value to your business? To make a determination about hou valuable things (such as stocks, bonds, machines, companies) are, you need to be......
Food engineering is usually a difficult discipline for food science students
because they are more used to qualitative rather than to quantitative descriptions
of food processing operations. Food engineering requires understanding
of the basic principles of fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer phenomena
and application of these principles to unit operations which are frequently used
in food processing, e.g., evaporation, drying, thermal processing, cooling and
freezing, etc. The most difficult part of a course in food engineering is often
considered the solution of problems.
Engineering technology or mechanical engineering industry is the application of physical principles to create all kinds of machinery and equipment or other useful objects. Mechanical application of thermodynamic principles, the law of conservation of mass and energy to analyze static and dynamic physical systems, for design work in areas such as automotive, aircraft and the other vehicles, heating systems and cooling, household appliances, machinery and production equipment, weapons ...
n view of the growing importance of product liability and the demand for fulfillment of extreme specifications for new products, this book provides the basic tools for establishing model equations in structural mechanics. Additionally, it illustrates the transition and interrelation between structural mechanics and structural optimization. Nowadays, this new direction is extremely important for more efficiency in the design process. The book is divided into four parts covering the fundamentals of elasticity, plane and curved load-bearing structures and structural optimization.