This publication was prepared by the International Energy Agency’s
Directorate of Sustainable Energy Policy and Technology, under the
leadership of Bo Diczfalusy, and in co-operation with other divisions
of the Agency. Markus Wråke is the project leader of Energy Technology
Perspectives 2012. Antonia Gawel co-ordinated and is lead author of this
report, with drafting and analytical input from a number of IEA colleagues.
Cecilia Tam is lead author of the finance section and Kevin Breen provided
significant data and analytical support. ...
Steam - The Energy Fluid
It is useful to introduce the topic of steam by considering its many uses and benefits, before entering an overview of the steam plant or any technical explanations. Steam has come a long way from its traditional associations with locomotives and the Industrial Revolution. Steam today is an integral and essential part of modern technology. Without it, our food, textile, chemical, medical, power, heating and transport industries could not exist or perform as they do.
In 2020, areas of particular importance for technology trends will include biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials technology, and information technology. The authors of this report assessed a sample of 29 countries across the spectrum of scientific advancement (low to high) with respect to their ability to acquire and implement 16 key technology applications (e.g., cheap solar energy, rural wireless communications, genetically modified crops). The study
This book is concerned with the subject of Wind Energy, as a source of clean and renewable and free for
all. The need for this type of book is very well documented, the current consumption of energy is
unsustainable and humans have to change their habits and or utilise this source, but there is so much work
before we can rely completely on renewable energy. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of wind
energy and the pertinent parameters that control the amount of energy available from a given wind turbine.
Coal fuelled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century.
Inventions in steam engines, cotton mills, and iron works converged in the
eighteenth century to propel the First Industrial Revolution. Inventions in
internal combustion engines, electrification, and steelmaking in the nineteenth
century ushered in the Second Industrial Revolution. Today, twentieth-century
inventions in digital technology are being conjoined with twenty-first-century
innovations in software, materials and advanced manufacturing processes,
robotics, and web-based services to inaugurate the Third Industrial Revolution.
Lithography, the fundamental fabrication process of semiconductor devices, is playing
a critical role in micro- and nano-fabrications and the revolution in high density integrated
circuits. Traditional optical lithography (photolithography) including contact and project
photolithography has contributed significantly to the semiconductor device advancements.
Optoelectronics - Materials and Techniques is the first part of an edited anthology on
the multifaceted areas of optoelectronics contributed by a selected group of authors
including promising novices to experts in the field, where are discussed related
materials and techniques. Photonics and optoelectronics are making an impact
multiple times the semiconductor revolution made on the quality of our life.
Since 1970, optical fiber and optical communication technologies have been rapidly
developing, causing a technology revolution in the communication industries. Due
to much lower attenuation and interference, optical fiber has many advantages over
existing copper wire in long-distance and high-demand applications. The revolution
in communication industries also significantly reduces the prices of optical
components and stimulates the development of optical fiber sensors.
The previous edition of Energy Technology Perspectives(ETP), published in summer
2008, called for an energy technology revolution to tackle the undesirable
consequences of our current patterns of energy supply and use. It also highlighted
that, if we did not alter course, concerns about energy security and the threat of
dangerous climate change would only become much worse. So what – if any –
progress have we made over the last two years in meeting these challenges?
At first sight, it may seem as though not much has changed.
The utilisation of renewable energies is not at all new; in the history of mankind
renewable energies have for a long time been the primary possibility of generating
energy. This only changed with industrial revolution when lignite and hard coal
became increasingly more important. Later on, also crude oil gained importance.
Offering the advantages of easy transportation and processing also as a raw
material, crude oil has become one of the prime energy carriers applied today.
For centuries these ethnic Germans lived abroad and were a relatively closed group of
people. After the start of World War I the laws of liquidation were implemented. On the
basis of these laws more than 200,000 German colonists were driven away. In 1922, after the
October-revolution and civil war the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was
founded. When the Nazi Party came into power in Germany the situation of the Germans in
the USSR worsened. Seen as an internal enemy, Stalin restricted their rights.
The motion of all vehicles requires the expenditure of a certain quantity of mechanical energy, and in motor vehicles the system that supplies such energy (in most cases an internal combustion engine) is on board. The lack of an adequate prime mover is the main reason that mechanical vehicles could be built only at the end of the industrial revolution, and enter mass production only in the Twentieth Century, in spite of attempts dating back to ancient times. For a mechanical vehicle to be built, a prime mover able to move not only itself, but the vehicle structure and payload...
For millennia, advances in human progress have been tied to our ability to
protect ourselves from the harmful effects of the wastes we produce—ranging
from human waste to the organic and inorganic by-products of everyday living.
Across the world, cultures learned to bury their dead away from their homes and
to burn their waste or make certain that it was carried away by streams and rivers
flowing downstream from their homes. Those cultures that learned this most effectively
thrived. When the industrial revolution took place in the nineteenth century,
rivers again enabled progress.
After decades of exponential increase in computing power per dollar, the HEC community faces great
challenges in creating the hardware, software, and systems to achieve and exploit the next few orders of
magnitude increase in HEC capability expected by 2020. These challenges include developing applications
and system architectures that effectively utilize billion-fold concurrency, reducing the energy per
computation by orders of magnitude, achieving system resilience at extreme scales, and enabling future
revolutions in simulation and big-data-enabled science and technology. ...
The day before the Conference,
Dr Gordon Harper accompanied by
officers of BACAMH visited the Center for
Neurodevelopment and Autism, which had
been established recently in BSMMU. This
center is a government initiative to establish
a nationwide pediatric neurodevelopment
and autism-related management, training and
research centre in Bangladesh. Dr Harper
expressed his satisfaction after visiting the
center. As autism is still a novel concept
in Bangladesh, he believed that both this
center and BACAMH could achieve a better
management and outcome for children and