With shortages of fossil energy and heavy biomass energy use occurring in both developed and developing countries, a major focus has developed worldwide on renewable energy systems. Currently, a heavy focus is on biofuels made from crops, crop residues and wood. Though it may seem beneficial to use renewable plant materials for biofuel, their use raises many concerns about major environmental problems, including food shortages and serious destruction of vital soil resources.
The increasing demand for energy worldwide, together with the depletion of crude oil
reserves, environmental threats due to greenhouse gas emissions and new national
and international legislation, is resulting in the imperative for petroleum-derived fuels
to be complemented or substituted by biofuels. Such an alternative, renewable,
biodegradable and nontoxic biofuel is biodiesel.
The book “Biodiesel: Feedstocks and Processing Technologies” is intended to provide
a professional look on the recent achievements and emerging trends in biodiesel
AT THE transition to the new millennium the future of nuclear energy looks
brighter. Nuclear power plants worldwide have operated safely.
Applications for extension of reactor operating licenses in the U.S. are in
place and construction is continuing abroad.
Uses of isotopes and radiation in applications to medicine, research, and
industry continue to assure human benefit. Research and development are
active in the areas of controlled fusion, accelerator uses, isotope separation,
space exploration, and excess weapons material disposition.
Worldwide attention to environmental issues combined with the energy crisis force us
to reduce greenhouse emissions and increase the usage of renewable energy sources as
a solution to providing an efficient environment. This book addresses the current
issues of sustainable growth and applications in renewable energy sources. The fifteen
chapters of the book have been divided into two sections to organize the information
accessible to readers.
The international technology concern
SCHOTT decided back in the 1990's to
focus on solar energy. Today SCHOTT
is the only company worldwide that
offers products and solutions for all
solar technologies. SCHOTT delivers
solar thermal tube collectors for water
heating, photovoltaic modules for
decentralized power generation, and
receivers for parabolic trough power
plants for centralized generation of
SCHOTT employs outstanding solar
experts. They are convinced of the
great future prospects for solar energy.
Research, development and industrialisation of renewable energy are currently moving at a rapid pace
worldwide. Biofuels play significant roles in decarbonisation of our future energy needs and act to
mitigate deleterious impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. Liquid transportation biofuels (bioethanol and
biodiesel) now represent key contributors to the bioenergy portfolios in many countries.
Robotics research, especially mobile robotics is a young field. Its roots include many engineering and scientific disciplines from mechanical, electrical and electronics engineering to computer, cognitive and social sciences. Each of this parent fields is exciting in its own way and has its share in different books. This book is a result of inspirations and contributions from many researchers worldwide.
A sustainable energy future with a stable global climate is central to the present worldwide debate on climate change due to the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is the main greenhouse gas (GHG) from human activities.
The use of biodiesel worldwide is becoming increasingly important, because of the
widespread shortage of oil resources, which has raised the prices of fossil fuels. This
biofuel also offers an opportunity to meet the energy demands with less impact to the
environment due its renewable characteristics.
This book entitled "Biodiesel – Quality, Emissions and By-Products" comprises 20 chapters
and covers topics related to biodiesel quality, performance of combustion engines that
use biodiesel, and the emissions they generate.
The fossil fuels that are principally used to provide energy today are in limited
quantity, they are diminishing at an alarming rate, and their worldwide supplies will
eventually be exhausted. Fossil fuels provide approximately 60 percent of the world’s
global electric power. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere will continue to rise
unless other cleaner sources of energy are explored. Biomass has the potential to
become one of the major global primary energy source in the years to come.
The sustainability and prosperity of the ancient civilizations of China, Egypt, Babylonia,
Phoenicia, Persia and Roma were based on the extensive use of water for human
consumption, crop irrigation, canal navigation and energy generation. Today, the
worldwide scarcity of water and clean energy constitutes a central and critical problem
for the whole humankind. This situation is aggravated as industrial, agricultural
and municipal effl uents reach the water bodies, or the coastal seawater that is used as
feed for desalination plants.
The Proportional, Integral and Derivative –PID– controller is the most widely used
controller in industrial applications. Since its first appearance in the late nineteen century,
it had attracted researchers from all over the world because of its simplicity and
the ability to provide an excellent control performance. The PID controller now represents
more than ninety percent of the controllers used in the market.
This book is a result of contributions and inspirations from many researchers worldwide
in the field of control engineering.
"Under the right conditions and applications, evaporative air-conditioning (EAC) technologies can provide excellent cooling and ventilation with minimal energy consumption." Evaporative air-conditioning technologies are being used increasingly in residential and commercial applications worldwide. EAC technologies, which rely on water as a coolant rather than on chemical refrigerants, are economical to produce and use and have important environmental benefits.
The use of satellites in communications systems is very much a fact of everyday life, as
is evidenced by the many homes equipped with antennas, or dishes used for reception
of satellite television. What may not be so well known is that satellites form an
essential part of telecommunication systems worldwide, carrying large amounts of
data and telephone traffic in addition to the television signals.
The main objective of this work is to develop an economically viable process
for producing papermaking fibres of adequate quality and generating energy
from wheat straw. Wheat straw was selected as the raw material since wheat is
cultivated and available worldwide (Curtis 2002) and only a minor part of the
straw is used for energy production or animal feed. One of the primary aims in
this work is to find ways to store the raw material chemically between the
harvesting periods and examine the effects on pulping and pulp properties (Paper
IV). In addition, the aim of this work is...
This book has been prepared to present state of the art on WiMAX Technology. It has
been constructed with the support of many researchers around the world, working on
resource allocation, quality of service and WiMAX applications. Such many different
works on WiMAX, show the great worldwide importance of WiMAX as a wireless
broadband access technology.
As shown in Table 2, the area of agricultural land worldwide is larger than that
of forests (FAOSTAT Resources 2009). Furthermore, non-wood fibres usually
have high annual biomass yields per hectare which are equal or superior to that
of woods (Pierce 1991). Approximately 30% of the forest area is used primarily
for the production of wood. An additional 24% of the forest area is designated
for multiple uses, which also includes the production of wood in most cases
This book has been prepared to present the state of the art on WiMAX Technology. The focus of the book is the physical layer, and it collects the contributions of many important researchers around the world. So many different works on WiMAX show the great worldwide importance of WiMAX as a wireless broadband access technology.
The ancient carving industry in Jepara is famous locally and worldwide. Its reputation has attracted
many related economic activities linked to wood production and processing, especially furniture
making. Today, Jepara is a typical example of what is called an ‘industrial district’
in which growth in
one sector (furniture manufacturing) has attracted thousands of small to medium-sized industries
to the Kabupaten (administrative district)2
. These in turn have created an opportunity for further
subsidiary activities and industries.
Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends.
However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal, derive their
energy from the sun.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active
depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar
techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into