Measuring the institutional foundations of financial markets is essential for understanding
its determinants, and help design better policies
• Indices of the rule of law, creditor rights and information, business transparency, and the
quality of infrastructure are associated with deeper and more efficient financial markets
• In banking and securities markets, characteristics related to private monitoring and enforcement
drive development more than public enforcement measures
A very important campaign is waged every working day in numerous businesses across England and Wales. It happens as directors, partners, proprietors, managers, credit controllers and their staff try to collect the money that is owed to them or their organisations. They almost always succeed in the end, but all too often the end is much too long coming. The culture of slow payment continues to be a problem and for some it can be a life or death problem, at least in the business sense.
Previously a senior forest
campaigner and investigator with the Environmental Investigation Agency, an international NGO, he
has been researching and investigating illegal logging and associated trade for more than ten years. He is
the author of a number of influential reports on illegal logging and timber smuggling, has been actively
engaged with many international initiatives to tackle the problem, and has provided relevant training to
enforcement agents and NGOs in producer countries. He has led the development of Chatham House’s
work on illegal logging indicators since 2006....
Doing Business 2011 : Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs is the eighth in a series of annual reports investigating
regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators
on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from
Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time.
Institutional gaps at the country level can be immense. Too often, they have
included a lack of documented rights claimed by local people and weak con-
sultation processes that have led to uncompensated loss of land rights, espe-
cially by vulnerable groups; a limited capacity to assess a proposed project’s
technical and economic viability; and a limited capacity to assess or enforce
environmental and social safeguards.
Such problems are not due to a lack of potential.
The development of a strategy involves the selection of a coherent set of measures which,
taken together, will reduce the emissions of transport pollutants. These measures can be
technology-oriented, targeting the vehicles and fuels used and maintenance practices within the
sector, or they can be behavioural, seeking to reduce (or prevent increases in) the amount of
activity of the most polluting vehicles.
The scale and horror of recent terror attacks and the panic which ensued
throughout the world has forced policy-makers and international lawyers
to re-examine international legal tools available to enforce norms
against terrorism. The magnitude of the attacks, the modalities of the
operations, the profiles of the terrorists and the transnational structure of
some terrorist organisations all cast doubt on the adequacy of the existing
political and legal framework to fight terrorism.
With the increased use of technology to share information among law
enforcement agencies and the courts, it is common for jurisdictions to
place information regarding civil and criminal cases, including protection
orders, in secure governmental databases or on websites to allow for easy
access to case information. VAWA limits the personal information that can
be publicly posted on the Internet.
The WHO/HAI methodology for measuring medicine prices relies on data that are collected
through visits to medicines outlets in the public sector, the private sector and any other
sectors that serve as important medicine dispensing points (e.g. NGOs, mission hospitals). For
each medicine included in the survey (a standard “basket” of 50 medicines is recommended),
information on the final price of both the originator brand and the lowest-priced generic
equivalent found at each medicine outlet is sought.
The past year has been good for doing business in 58 of
the 145 Doing Business sample countries. They simplified
some aspect of business regulations, strengthened property
rights or made it easier for businesses to raise financing.
Slovakia was the leading reformer: introducing
flexible working hours, easing the hiring of first-time
workers, opening a private credit registry, cutting the
time to start a business in half and, thanks to a
new collateral law, reducing the time to recover debt by
three-quarters. Colombia was the runner-up.
authorize the regulation of security measures that are not associated with
the immediate food-processing environment, such as requiring fences,
alarms, and outside lighting. Neither agency believes that it has the authority
to regulate all aspects of security at food-processing facilities.
Both FDA and USDA issued voluntary security guidelines to help food
processors identify measures to prevent or mitigate the risk of deliberate
contamination. Because these guidelines are voluntary, neither agency
enforces, monitors, or documents their implementation.
The lead agency must also coordinate with other agencies and review security plans for infrastructure and
utilities that could threaten event security (local water supply, water treatment facilities, electricity supply,
communications grid, sewer system, computer systems, etc.). At some special events, manhole covers have
been welded shut near the event venues. Often, newspaper dispensers and public trash cans are removed
before an event (they can be hiding places for bombs and can be used as missiles to harm law enforcement
or destroy property). When such measures...
In both the United Kingdom and the United States of America,
there is a legislative framework that assigns a very large measure
of responsibility to employers for the health and safety of their
employees. The detailed approach is slightly different and readers
need to familiarise themselves with the requirements. Where they
have doubts, they should consult the enforcing authorities for
• The Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)
• Occupational Safety and Health Administration (United States
Governance research in accounting exploits the role of
accounting information as a source of credible information
variables that support the existence of enforceable contracts,
such as compensation contracts with payoffs to managers
contingent on realized measures of performance, the
monitoring of managers by boards of directors and outside
investors and regulators, and the exercise of investor rights
granted by existing securities laws. The remainder of Section 3
is organized as follows. Section 3.
The Art of Public Speaking The time has come when the salvation of the country demands the restoration to place and power of men of high ideals who will wage unceasing war against corruption in politics, who will enforce the law against both rich and poor, and who will treat guilt as personal and punish it accordingly. What is our duty? To think alike as to men and measures? Impossible! Even for our great party! There is not a reactionary among us. All Democrats are Progressives. But it is inevitably human that we shall not all agree that in a...
In 1989, the government of Mexico City introduced a program, Hoy No Circula, which bans
most drivers from using their vehicles one workday per week based on the last digit of the ve-
hicle’s license plate. The program has been strictly enforced and has been since emulated in
Bogota, Santiago and S˜ao Paolo. This paper measures the eﬀect of the driving restrictions on
air quality using high-frequency measures from monitoring stations. Across pollutants and spec-
iﬁcations there is no evidence that the program has improved air quality.
Oracle Audit Vault is an enterprise-class audit consolidation and management solution that
enables organizations to simplify compliance reporting, proactively detect threats, reduce costs,
and secure audit data. Faced with numerous regulatory mandates and increasing concerns about
insider threats, organizations are utilizing database audit data as an important security measure,
enforcing the trust-but-verify principle.
Tenth in a series of annual reports comparing business regulation in 185 economies, Doing Business 2013 measures regulations affecting 11 areas of everyday business activity: Starting a business Dealing with construction permits Getting electricity Registering property Getting credit Protecting investors Paying taxes Trading across borders Enforcing c
Congress has enacted laws requiring individuals and facilities to take measures to protect
environmental quality and public health by limiting potentially harmful emissions and discharges,
and remediating damage. Enforcement of federal pollution control laws in the United States
occurs within a highly diverse, complex, and dynamic statutory framework and organizational
setting. Multiple statutes address a number of environmental pollution issues, such as those
associated with air emissions, water discharges, hazardous wastes, and toxic substances in