Enforcing contracts

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  • Doing Business 2011 : Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs is the eighth in a series of annual reports investigating regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time.

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  • The past year has been good for doing business in 58 of the 145 Doing Business sample countries. They simplified some aspect of business regulations, strengthened property rights or made it easier for businesses to raise financing. Slovakia was the leading reformer: introducing flexible working hours, easing the hiring of first-time workers, opening a private credit registry, cutting the time to start a business in half and, thanks to a new collateral law, reducing the time to recover debt by three-quarters. Colombia was the runner-up.

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  • Brazil’s capital market remains focused on short term instruments. Most financial contracts among residents are indexed to the overnight interest rate, although there has been a gradual trend towards increasing duration in the recent years. This largely short term structure reflects long-standing fundamental factors, including a legacy of past high inflation that typically is associated with a more short–term focus for investing.

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  • Chapter 19 Insurance Versus Incentives 19.1. Insurance with recursive contracts This chapter studies a planner who designs an efficient contract to supply insurance in the presence of incentive constraints imposed by his limited ability either to enforce contracts or to observe households’ actions or incomes.

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  • Governance research in accounting exploits the role of accounting information as a source of credible information variables that support the existence of enforceable contracts, such as compensation contracts with payoffs to managers contingent on realized measures of performance, the monitoring of managers by boards of directors and outside investors and regulators, and the exercise of investor rights granted by existing securities laws. The remainder of Section 3 is organized as follows. Section 3.

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  • Doing Business 2010: Reforming Through Difficult Times is the seventh in a series of annual reports investigating regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time.

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  • We also noted that NOP officials need to address ongoing issues with California’s State Organic Program (SOP). The Act allows any State to apply to the Secretary to implement a program for regulating organic products produced and handled within that State. The State must have compliance, mediation, and appeal procedures that meet NOP regulations to become an SOP. When officials of the California Department of Food and Agriculture applied to have an approved SOP, they did not have the required compliance and enforcement procedures in place.

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  • A ‘rule of law’ approach would promote mutual agreements and investments, but be much tougher on their implementation. For example, the European Commission should be given political support to apply competition policy in the energy sector, and to investigate some of the more dubious deals between Russian and EU companies. More generally, the EU should demand the enforcement of the growing number of agreements which have not been implemented – the PCA, the four Common Spaces and the European Energy Charter.

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  • The Superfund program protects the American public and its resources by cleaning up sites which pose an imminent or long term risk of exposure and harm to human health and the environment. In FY 2013, the Agency will maintain the funding level necessary to respond to emergency releases of hazardous substances as well as maintain the goal of sites achieving human exposure and groundwater migration under control.

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  • Themaindifferencebetweenstockandmutualcompaniesrestswithwhocontrols thebankandreceivesitsprofits(Rasmusen1988).Astockcompanyisownedbyits stockholders,whocontrol(atleastintheory)themanagers,decidehowtodistribute profits, and are free to sell their stocks at any time. On the contrary, a mutual association is “owned” by itsmemberswho are also its depositors, but it is hardly controlled by them.

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  • Genuine Assent Necessary to create an enforceable contract. Determined by relevant facts surrounding negotiation and formation of the contract. May be manifested in any manner sufficient to show agreement, including express words or conduct of the parties. Genuineness of Assent (continued) May be lacking due to: Mistake Misrepresentation Duress Undue Influence

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  • Eighth in a series of annual reports comparing business regulations in 183 economies, Doing Business 2011 measures regulations affecting 10 areas of everyday business activity: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, and closing a business. The report updates all 10 sets of indicators, ranks countries on their overall ease of doing business and analyzes reforms to business regulation- identifying which countries...

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  • Due to the nonredundancy condition, the competitive-equilibrium contracts we derive exclude most options by assumption; in particular, nonsophisticated borrowers’ only option to change the repayment schedule will be to change it by a lot for a large fee. As is usually the case in models of nonlinear pricing, the same outcomes can also be implemented by allowing other choices, but making them so expensive that the borrower does not want to choose them.

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  • The most important rule when making any business agreement is: Get it in writing. In some situations—such as a contract to buy or sell real estate—only a written agreement is legally enforceable. Similarly, a contract that can’t be carried out in one year, or a contract to sell goods exceeding a certain value set by state law (typically, $500), must be written.

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  • Standards are appointments and may become enforceable by jurisdictional law and administrative regulations through signed contracts (for instance a sales contract) and can be understood to be ‘‘approved technology rules’’. The general features of standards are, in short: . . . . . . Standards are a service for technology. Standards are an economic and a technical form of cooperation (see also DIN 820 Part 1).

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  • The value of the share depends on how well its property rights are enforced. The enforcement of property rights is usually undertaken by both individual owners and the state. In economies where the state does not effectively enforce property rights, the enforcement by individual owners plays a relatively more important role. The structure of share ownership affects the degree to which corporate contracts are enforced, because it affects the owners’ abilities and incentives to enforce the property rights delineated by the contracts.

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  • To effectively perform their respective functions, all stakeholders, in particu- lar, governments, need access to accurate and up-to-date information on opportunities, actual transfers, and the technical and economic impact of large investments. In many cases, lack of such information makes it difficult to identify and utilize opportunities, ensure a level playing field, and enforce regulation and contracts properly.

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  • A more widely used device is the buying and selling of futures contracts on the commodities exchange. All individuals or firms holding agricultural commodities for which futures markets are available may guard -- "hedge" -- against price changes. Essential marketing services are performed by the people who run the futures exchange and enforce its trading rules, the brokers who act as agents on the floor of the exchange, and the speculators who assume the risks and thus make hedging possible.

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  • In a competitive world of symmetric information and costless enforcement, credit contracts could be written conditional on borrower behavior. Borrowers would then have access to loans under any interest rate-collateral combination that would yield lenders a zero expected profit. However, as a large literature has shown, information asymmetries and enforcement costs make such conditional contracting infeasible and restrict the set of available contracts, eliminating as incentive incompatible high interest rate, low collateral contracts.

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  • In this paper, we propose an interpretation of these events in which the prospect of a New Economy plays a key role in generating the other events. More specifically, we show that the mere prospect of high future productiv- ity growth can generate sizable gains in current productivity, as well as an economic expansion, a stock market boom and a financing boom for new firms. There are two main ingredients to our story: financing constraints due to limited contract enforceability and firm-level diminishing returns to scale.

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