The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) has long collected
information on the number and characteristics of individuals with
education or employment in science and engineering and related
fields in the United States. One of the three vehicles employed by NSF for
collecting this information is the National Survey of College Graduates
Concerns about the size and adequacy of the U.S. scientific, technical, engineering, and mathematics workforce have grown amid fears of a dwindling labor pool and concern that this may erode U.S. leadership in science and technology and could complicate mobilization of appropriate
This study was mandated by Congress in the National
Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002
(P.L. 107-107), Section 253: Study and Report on Effectiveness
of Air Force Science and Technology Program
Changes (see Appendix A).
The RP process begins when the object is drawn on the screen of a CAD
workstation or personal computer to provide the digital data base. Then,
in a post-design data processing step, computer software slices the object
mathematically into a finite number of horizontal layers in generating an
STL (Solid Transfer Language) file. The thickness of the “slices” can
range from 0.0025 to 0.5 in. (0.06 to 13 mm) depending on the RP
process selected. The STL file is then converted to a file that is compati-
ble with the specific 3D “printer” or processor that will construct the
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With the onset of technology and the demand for an educated workforce, more Canadians than ever
before are taking up reading. Sales of books in Canada increased by 28% from 1989 to 1995,
including an increase of 7% from 1994 to 1995. Mass market paperbacks are the primary driver of
the increase with a 40% increase in sales from 1989 to 1995.
Retail magazine sales have not increased at the same rate as book sales. Magazine sales actually
dropped by 4% between 1991 and 1993 with a 4% increase between 1995 and 1996.
.Committee on Assuring a Future U.S.-Based Nuclear Chemistry Expertise Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Higher Education and Workforce Division on Policy and Global Affairs
The overall organizational structure of the Port Authority is heavily concentrated in
senior and middle management. This structural characteristic in large part is driven by
the long‐tenured nature of the employee workforce that has been promoted based on
seniority and not necessarily merit.
Expenditure on R&D is low by OECD standards. Business R&D (BERD) is particularly low but
is growing faster than the OECD mean. However, as a proportion of total industry value added,
New Zealand small ﬁ rms undertake more BERD than small ﬁ rms in most other OECD countries.
International patenting rates are also well below the OECD mean and are not growing.
New Zealand has a relatively large proportion of R&D personnel in its workforce but they are
concentrated in the higher education sector and government.