The TOEIC Speaking and Writing tests include tasks that people might perform in work-related
situations or in familiar daily activities that are common across cultures. The tests assess English-
language speaking and writing proﬁ ciency and do not require test takers to have specialized
knowledge of business.
Most people work in order to earn their living.
They produce goods and services.
Goods are either produced on farms, like maize and milk, or
in factories, like cars and paper.
Services are provided by such things as schools, hospitals
Some people provide goods; some provide services.
Other people provide both goods and services.
For example, in the same garage, a man may buy a car, or he
may buy some service which helps him to maintain his car.
This material is written for students who major in E-commerce. The topics selected mostly
deal with basic areas of business and economics. They are presented in an order from a sole
proprietorship to a multinational corporation. Each lesson is introduced and related to the previous
lesson. Besides, students also have chance to deal with several topics related to information
technology which has a very close relationship with e-commerce.
The discipline of economics has developed principles, theories, and
models that isolate the most important determinants of economic events.
In constructing a model, economists make assumptions to eliminate unnecessary
detail to reduce the complexity of economic behavior. Once
modeled, economic behavior may be presented as a relationship between
dependent and independent variables. The behavior being explained is
the dependent variable; the economic events explaining that behavior are
the independent variables.
This is the eighth book of the papers I have collected, on a fairly narrow range of topics in economics - international economy, questions of international finance, financial history and history economic (including some specialized topics such as multinational corporations and the Marshall Plan).
This is the eighth book of my collected papers, each on a fairly narrow range of topics within economics
— international economics, international financial questions, financial history and economic history
(including some specialized topics such as the multinational corporation and the Marshall Plan). The
exercise has strong overtones of narcissism, which makes me uneasy, but may serve a useful purpose
in assembling in convenient locations work that would otherwise remain scattered and in part lost (as
perhaps it should be).
Economics is a social science that studies individu-
als and organizations engaged in the production, dis-
tribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The goal is to predict economic occurrences and to
develop policies that might prevent or correct such
problems as unemployment, inﬂation, or waste in the
I sent the columnist/tutor an e-mail, starting off softly: “Enjoyed your column, blah blah,
impressed you also know so much about math, blah blah. And by the way, you might want to
check your source on the split infinitives stuff. The Associated Press Stylebook, The Chicago
Manual of Style, Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style, Garner’s Modern American Usage
and others all say there’s no such rule.”
The columnist wrote me back. Her response: “I could not disagree more.”
Everything about my host tells me that he is, by nature, a democratic and diplomatic kind of
guy. But between the lines I think I catch the scent of something else—the passion of the
people who see my grammar column in their local newspapers and send me e-mails saying,
“As a fellow grammar and usage Nazi …” or, “Keep fighting against abuse of the language!”
English is the world’s current lingua franca. Nations without English as a native
language push to promote English as a second language (ESL) in their schools and
workplaces in order to compete with economic and diplomatic demands. In China, the
ESL movement has boomed over the last decade.
When the Editorial and Programme Director of the Institute
of Economic Affairs asked me to write the foreword to this new
edition of Cento Veljanovski’s The Economics of Law, I accepted his
invitation immediately and with great pleasure. A book I had long
wanted to see back in print, to benefi t both new generations of
students and practising lawyers and economists as yet unfamiliar
with the area, would soon once again be available.
Security has been a human concern since the dawn of time. With the rise of the digital society, information security has rapidly grown to an area of serious study and ongoing research. While much research has focused on the technical aspects of
computer security, far less attention has been given to the management issues of information risk and the economic concerns facing firms and nations.
The Economics LTSN invited me to write a case study discussing the challenges and rewards of teaching economics to MBA (Master of Business Administration) students. Why a case study about MBA teaching? Certainly, it is an important market and has grown rapidly. More to the point, teaching MBA students poses particular challenges, but equally can be exceptionally rewarding
The aim of this book is to bring students of economics and finance who have only an introductory background in mathematics up to a quite advanced level in the subject, thus preparing them for the core mathematical demands of econometrics, economic theory, quantitative finance and mathematical economics, which they are likely to encounter in their final-year courses and beyond. The level of the book will also be useful for those embarking on the first year of their graduate studies in Business, Economics or Finance.
For many immigrants to the United States, limited proficiency in the English language is a formidable challenge to both economic and social integration into their new home. Immigrants who speak English poorly are more superficially foreign than others, and this may contribute to their being discriminated against by U.S. natives. Moreover, immigrants with limited English proficiency might self-segregate, compounding this social and economic isolation.
Rapid economic growth is the only sustainable foundation for the elimination of poverty. However, only strategies that include agricultural development can establish strong links between overall growth and reduction in poverty. Most strategies that seek rapid industrialization at the expense of agriculture, even if the intent is to alleviate poverty, actually slow down economic growth and increase levels of poverty. In a country with many impoverished people, policymaker must address both growth and poverty through an.......
Most important, this edition adds more than 500 new words and terms that
have come into common use since the previous edition was published. The addi-
tions are by no means comprehensive, but they include some of the most promi-
nent new locutions in a language that has grown increasingly rich. The Queen’s
English, often regarded as a paradigm of correct and "proper" usage, has been
busy absorbing words and phrases from diverse sources—some reflecting new
political alignments, some from overseas, many from the argot of the street. ...