Environmental and lifestyle

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  • Environmental and lifestyle risk factors provide a piece of the risk assessment puzzle as well, but since they change over time and are often difficult to measure, they don’t provide all of the information. Lastly, genetic risk factors can be measured accurately and do not change over time. Since genetic data is personalized, this kind of risk assessment may provide additional incentive to change behavior. As more genetic risk factors are being identified, it is clear that their effects on disease risk are just as significant as the effects of environment and family history.

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  • Reliable gene-lifestyle interaction studies will yield important evidence for the shaping of personalised healthcare. Studies need statistical power with adequate environmental exposures and lifestyle heterogeneity to obtain reliable evidence on the interplay between nurture and nature. Europe has a historic strength in large epidemiological studies but technology development and implementation is needed to better ascertain environmental exposure and dietary heterogeneity.

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  • Always controversial, Thomas DeGregori has released another classic volume that is sure to inform, confound, and present new perspectives on todays environmental issues. This time he is taking on the environmentalists, naturalists, green consumerists, and those that hail the natural lifestyle as the healthy, politically correct thing to do. DeGregori examines the economics of green consumerism, the reality of saving the environment, how historical cultures may have influenced environmental damage, and how being ecologically correct may have a more damaging effect on our environment....

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  • Early-Onset drinkers or ‘Survivors’ are those people who have a continuing problem with alcohol which developed in earlier life. It is thought that two thirds of elderly problem drinkers have had an early onset of alcohol misuse. However, because of the health risks connected to heavy drinking and dependence on alcohol, the chances of reaching old age are reduced - one estimate is that the life span of a problem drinker may be shortened by on average ten to fifteen years.

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  • Customer loyalty is of utmost importance to apparel and footwear manufacturers, who would do almost anything to attract new customers while trying to keep existing customers. “In a market that bombards consumers with advertising campaigns and lifestyle and fashion messages, a brand name is a powerful weapon in these efforts” (Wagle). Brand names are becoming increasingly important to consumers as disposable income and the amount of time consumers are able to shop around is slowly diminishing.

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  • Population groups that are potentially more vulnerable than others to indoor air pollution are children, pregnant women, elderly people, and people suffering from cardiovascular or respiratory diseases. Depending on their age, children may be more vulnerable than adults to certain toxic substances, like lead and tobacco smoke. Even at low levels, air pollutants may disrupt the development of their lungs, cause cough, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases, and make asthma worse.

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  • Cancer, this complex group of diseases with serious implications not just for individuals and their families, but also for society in general and health systems in particular, remains an important health challenge in Slovenia, in Europe and world-wide. At present, with more than 3 million new cases and 1.7 million deaths each year, cancer represents the second most important cause of death and morbidity in Europe.

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  • Genetic factors and environmental factors - lifestyle, personal and family medical history - need to be considered for a complete picture of risk assessment. This is because each of these types of risk factors has advantages and limitations in informing risk. For example, family medical history can capture general risk information for genetic factors inherited from one’s parents, but can be incomplete, unknown, or recalled inaccurately. Indeed, family medical history can often be one-dimensional and is affected by family size.

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  • Each generation has unique expectations, experiences, generational history, lifestyles, values, and demographics that influence their buying behaviors. Accordingly, many companies are reaching out to multi-generational consumers and trying to understand and gain the attention of these diverse buyers. Multi-generational marketing is the practice of appealing to the unique needs and behaviors of individuals within more than one specific generational group, with a generation being a group of individuals born and living about the same time [1].

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  • Complex Genetic Disorders The expression of many common diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, psychiatric disorders, and certain cancers is determined by a combination of genetic background, environmental factors, and lifestyle. A trait is called polygenic if multiple genes contribute to the phenotype or multifactorial if multiple genes are assumed to interact with environmental factors. Genetic models for these complex traits need to account for genetic heterogeneity and interactions with other genes and the environment.

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  • Allergic diseases are characterized by a Th2 inflammatory response involving several possible modulator factors (genetics and environmental factors), subject-related or antigenrelated modulators such as adjuvants, solubility in the microenvironment of mucosa, size of the sensitization agent, mucosa permeability, viral infections, and the greater or lesser ability of effectors cells to liberate mediators. Other factors include atmospheric pollution, exposure to tobacco, lifestyle-related diet and hygiene habits and maternal effects.

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  • Two million U.S. residents die each year; it is estimated that half of these deaths are "premature" and attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors (UC Berkley Wellness Letter 1997). Advances in biomedical sciences, mass immunization, and sanitation have resulted in a decrease in the incidence of infectious diseases (Matarazzo 1984), so that the health status of the population in economically developed countries now has less to do with acute illness than with lifestyle issues such as excessive drinking, unhealthy diet, or the use of tobacco products (Walsh et al.1993).

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  • Recently, it has been a great challenge to acquire an in-depth knowledge in regards to the inner workings and interactions between the immune system and environmental factors along with their impact on human health. Environmental factors like growing pollution, changes in lifestyle habits, dietary compo‐ nents, as well as various microorganisms are interfering with components of our immune system driving a normal immune response to hyper- or hypo-reactivity.

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  • Unfortunately many people do not value their health until they lose it. It can be reasoned however that if people can understand and appreciate better the basis of human value systems they could be more likely to reappraise their values and thereby encouraged to address aspects of life and living which have more intrinsic and sustainable or ‘real’ value for them.

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  • It has been reported worldwide that health problems caused by environmental pollution disproportionately affect unborn babies and small children. It is also known that children go through some developmental phases that are highly sensitive to certain pollutants. When unborn and small children go through physical and mental development, different organs develop at different times, and as such, some organs are more sensitive than others to certain materials during certain developmental phases.

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  • According to that report (and many others), the causes of such disparities are complex, including genetic differences, environmental and occupational hazards, stress and lifestyle. But even when diagnosed at equal rates, racial and ethnic communities and low income groups face difficulties in accessing health care services and education. Poverty, lack of health care coverage and under- insurance (more prevalent in many minority communities) also affect access to information, prevention education, screening, treatment, referral to specialists, continued treatment and even pain relief. ...

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  • Vegetables and fruits are rich sources of antioxidants. There is good evidence that eating a diet that includes plenty of vegetables and fruits is healthy, and official U.S. Government policy urges people to eat more of these foods. Research has shown that people who eat more vegetables and fruits have lower risks of several diseases; however, it is not clear whether these results are related to the amount of antioxidants in vegetables and fruits, to other components of these foods, to other factors in people’s diets, or to other lifestyle choices....

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  • International agreements, supported by hard science, are proving effective in combating wide-ranging environmental threats such as ozone depletion and long-range transboundary air pollution. Can similar agreements be implemented to address the more complex risks posed by global climate change? Scientific analysis in general, and the health sector in particular, need to inform and help advance ongoing policy discussions.

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  • CHAPTER NINETEEN Ecologic Radiation of Cambro-Ordovician Echinoderms Echinoderms represent a modest component of the initial metazoan radiation during the Cambrian but responded to global environmental changes across the CambroOrdovician boundary with rapid and prolific diversification to more varied lifestyles.

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