The chemistry of fine organic intermediates and products shows an enormous diversity. But in
reality, the number of operations/processes used remains reasonably small. These include
charging/discharging of reactants and solvents, inertisation, reactions, crystallisations, phase
separations, filtrations, distillation, product washing. In many cases cooling, heating, or the
application of vacuum or pressure is necessary. The unavoidable waste streams are treated in
recovery/abatement systems or disposed of as waste.