Environmental epidemics

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  • A fundamental element of sustainable development is environmental sustainability. Hence, this series was created in 2007 to cover current and emerging issues in order to promote debate and broaden the understanding of environmental challenges as integral to achieving equitable and sustained economic growth. The series will draw on analysis and practical experience from across the World Bank and from client countries.

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  • A fundamental element of sustainable development is environmental sustainability. Hence, this series was created in 2007 to cover current and emerging issues in order to promote debate and broaden the understanding of environmental challenges as integral to achieving equitable and sustained economic growth. The series will draw on analysis and practical experience from across the World Bank and from client countries.

    pdf239p tom_123 14-11-2012 27 2   Download

  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) undertook drug resistance studies during 1965- 67 in nine urban areas of the country. However, this exercise was not a surveillance study and did not use strict sampling techniques, the centres being selected more for logistic considerations than for epidemiological reasons. Sputum specimens collected from all patients attending chest clinics were tested for drug susceptibility to streptomycin, Isoniazid, para amino salicyctic acid (PAS) and thioacetazone.

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  • The 2004 Climate Plan outlines a series of programs designed to cut 72 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually, beyond the scope of France's commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. The European Union's burden-sharing approach to the Kyoto Protocol calls on France to freeze its greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels over the 2008-2012 period, an objective that government officials say will require annual reductions of 54 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions.

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  • Testing was performed in the gait laboratory of the City Hospital Waid in Zurich, Switzerland. To measure steady state walking, the central 7.32 m active sensor area of the GAITRite® system was used as the test distance. During the measurements, the subjects walked on the walkway while wearing their own comfortable clothing and low-heeled habitual shoes.

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  • Unfortunately many people do not value their health until they lose it. It can be reasoned however that if people can understand and appreciate better the basis of human value systems they could be more likely to reappraise their values and thereby encouraged to address aspects of life and living which have more intrinsic and sustainable or ‘real’ value for them.

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  • The report also identifies water-related risks for electric power/energy, apparel, biotechnology/pharmaceutical, forest products and metals/mining firms. For companies in these and other sectors, climate change will further reduce the availability of reliable and high quality water, impacting productivity, costs, revenues, public goodwill and reputation. The report highlights the intensifying conflict between energy use and water availability. With increasing frequency, choosing one of these resources means undermining the other – the other, usually being water.

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  • Transportation investment affects the economy through two fundamental mechanisms: (1) impacts of spending -- the act of investing money in public transportation facilities and operations supports jobs and income for that industry, as well as jobs and income in supplier industries and other affected elements of the economy; (2) costs and productivity impacts – the public transportation services that are enabled by that investment provide enhanced mobility, time and cost savings; leading to broader economic growth occurs as a result of changes in disposable household income, ...

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  • The World Bank and the Center for International Comparisons at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. As the trend from 1990 to 2010 is estimated, the time reference of the data gathered starts from 1985, in order to cover fully the period around 1990. Deaths due to AIDS were obtained from UNAIDS (unpublished tables from the Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010.

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  • A full-fledged study will begin in 2010, aiming to follow approximately 60,000 children throughout Japan until age 12. First, some ten Unit Centers will be selected throughout Japan. They will be comprised of social medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatric departments at universities and research institutes. With cooperation from regional medical organizations, these Unit Centers will be responsible for enrolling pregnant women, collecting biological samples, and other operations that require contact with the target population.

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  • Instead of showing the myriad ways that business, ethics, and environmentalism conflict and lead to impossible choices, it is more useful to ask, “How is it possible to put these ideas together?”2 In today’s world, all three issues require serious consideration. Businesses must continue to create value for their financiers and other stakeholders. Business leaders can no longer afford the ethical missteps that led to the epidemic of scandals in the last decade. To leave a livable world for future generations, business leaders also must pay attention to environmental matters.

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