Environmental harm

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  • This is a work in progress. It is a work that has been in progress for at least the last ten years if not more. It is a work that has much more yet to come. The study of environmental harm is relatively new for most criminologists. For myself, in writing this book I have had to draw upon my own work over the last decade plus that of a relatively small handful of criminologists who are fellow travellers in this area. On the other hand, there is a wealth of material from other fields and disciplines that is entirely relevant and useful to a study such as this...

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  • In contemporary debates about democratic governance, the concept of accountability is hard to avoid. At least from a European perspective, recent innovations in political and administrative decision-making have multiplied opportunities for citizens to hold to account those who exercise governmental authority. Or so we are told. Whether busy modernizing constitutional structures or realigning public services along market-led lines, our political representatives have proclaimed a new era of open and responsive government.

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  • There is a commonly held myth in our society that anything that is “natural” is good, wholesome, and healthful, whereas anything that is “synthetic” is bad, toxic, and harmful. The mere mention of the word chemical is enough to strike terror into the heart of any food faddist. This attitude is, at best, naïve and, at worst, dangerous.

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  • Where specific products, books, or laboratories are mentioned, no official U.S. government endorsement is intended or implied. Digital format users: No software was independently developed for this project. Technical questions related to software should be directed to the manufacturer of whatever software is being used to read the files. Adobe Acrobat PDF files are supplied to allow use of this product with a wide variety of software, hardware, and operating systems (DOS, Windows, MAC, and UNIX)....

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  • Participants from DCF stakeholder groups (provider countries / recipient countries / civil society and parliamentarians / UN system) are expected to brainstorm within their respective groups on how to advance gender equality in light of new challenges faced by development cooperation, including the transition to sustainable development and the coordination among different actors, approaches and flows to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women.

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  • Taking into consideration the outstanding importance of studying and applying the biological means to remove or mitigate the harmful effects of global pollution on the natural environment, as direct consequences of quantitative expansion and qualitative diversification of persistent and hazardous contaminants, the present book provides useful information regarding New Approaches and Prospective Applications in Environmental Biotechnology.

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  • Many harms flow across the ever-more porous sovereign borders of a globalizing world. These harms expose weaknesses in the international legal regime built on sovereignty of nation states. Using the Trail Smelter arbitration, one of the most cited cases in international environmental law, this book explores the changing nature of state responses to transboundary harm. Taking a critical approach, the book examines the arbitration’s influence on international law generally and international environ- mental law specifically.

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  • Nowadays, it is generally accepted that in the natural and industrial environments, corrosion and pollution are interrelated harmful processes since many water, air and soil pollutants accelerate corrosion, and corrosion products such as rust, oxides and salts, also pollute water bodies at ports, rivers, dams, canals and shipyards. Both are pernicious processes that impair the durability of the infrastructure assets, the industry efficiency and profitability and the quality of the environment.

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  • Air pollution does not only damage the air; it also damages environments on Earth’s surface and their inhabitants. Plants and animals are harmed by air pollution. Sometimes it is the pollutants themselves that cause damage. Other times pollutants combine and change the resources that plants and animals depend upon such as water, soil, and nutrients. The impacts of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Air pollution can have serious consequences for the health of human beings, and also severely affects natural ecosystems.

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  • Despite the protection afforded by several important legal instruments, the environment continues to be the silent victim of armed conflicts worldwide. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has conducted over twenty post-conflict assessments since 1999, using state-of-the-art science to determine the environmental impacts of war. From Kosovo to Afghanistan, Sudan and the Gaza Strip, UNEP has found that armed conflict causes significant harm to the environment and the communities that depend on natural resources.

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  • With the evaluation method is scientific and has been tested as: methods speculation, rapid assessment methods, research methods analyze the physical environment (water, air), statistical methods,comparison methods, ... to make reliable assessments as a basis for consultation measures to reduce environmental pollution both during construction and operation of the project.

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  • Despite the advances in the development of new drugs, a drug may never reach the target organ, or it may be difficult to achieve the necessary level of drug in the body. Large doses can result in serious side effects, and can harm normal cells and organs as well as diseased cells. Hence controlled release and the targeting of delivery systems must evolve in parallel to drug research.

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  • Today’s customer-focused, market-driven company cannot afford to miss the fact that many customers prefer environmentally friendly products given a similar cost. Again, it is easy to see that creating and sustaining competitive advantage is still a matter of “better, cheaper, faster.” The Internet has made customers more informed about every aspect of a product, including its potential environmental harms. Companies that can meet these environmental needs will be the winners.

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  • Inorganic mercury is toxic when humans or wildlife are exposed to high levels for a short peri- od of time. Organic methylmercury has a greater tendency to accumulate in the body over time, eventually causing harm, even in small amounts. Methylmercury has the three properties that make substances particularly harmful to humans and other organisms — it persists, it bioaccumulates, and it is toxic to most life forms. The health effects of mercury are described in more detail in the next chapter of this primer.

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  • It is important to note that NPDES permits are only required of so-called “point sources.” Point sources tend to be larger industrial and commercial facilities and public treatment facilities. Some large agricultural operations are considered point sources, but, by and large, runoff from farms, roads, lawns, and most small pollution sources are not directly regulated. These “nonpoint sources” are the subject of increased scrutiny, since most of the nation’s remaining water quality problems are due to nonpoint pollution.

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  • Some say that ‘the cockroach’ will be the last species on Earth to survive. Then it has been calculated that one gravid aphid, left to reproduce with zero mortality, will, after one year, cover the globe with an aphid layer over 140 km thick. Not forgetting too, that flies and fleas vector disease. So, why should we even consider conserving insects? Quite simply, without insects, the likelihood is that the world as we know it would be radically changed in a matter of days. Besides, it is only a tiny minority of insects that harm our lives.

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  • More than half of the world's population relies on solid fuels, including biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, dung, agricultural residues) and coal, to meet their basic energy needs. Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of indoor air pollution. Globally, indoor air pollution is responsible for approximately 1.6 million deaths every year. Various interventions are available to reduce indoor air pollution and associated health impacts at the household level.

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  • On behalf of the Internet Safety Technical Task Force, I am pleased to transmit to the 52 Attorneys General on the Multi-State Working Group the Task Force’s Final Report on the role and the promise of technologies to reduce the risk to minors of harmful contact and content on the Internet. Along with the quarterly reports submitted throughout the year to the Attorneys General and the evaluation criteria included in the Technology Advisory Board’s submission, this Report fulfills the Task Force’s remit to report the results of its study no later than December 31, 2008.

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  • Biologicalmicroorganismsare important tomaintainaproductive soil.Energy cropsusually supportamorediversemicrobialpopulationthantypicalagriculturalrowcrops.Somestudies suggestthatenergycropschangetheagriculturallandbiotatotheonesquitesimilartoforest environment.Increasedsoilcarbon,moreconsistentsoilmoisture,lowersoiltemperature(due topropercover)helpintherestorationoftheagriculturallandbiota.

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  • The movement to reform the SNA has arisen because the accounts as now defined do not include the full economic value of environmental resources or the role which they play in productive activity. Some of the elements missing from the accounts include: · Environmental expenditures. Expenditures to protect the environment from harm, or to mitigate that harm, cannot not be identified from the data in the accounts. Such expenditures include the costs incurred to prevent environmental harm, such as pollution control equipment purchased by factories or catalytic converters in cars.

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