Environmental protection measures

Xem 1-20 trên 33 kết quả Environmental protection measures
  • an effort to ensure the wise use of taxpayers’ money, the federal government has undertaken major initiatives to evaluate the performance and results of federally funded programs, including research and development (R&D) programs. The initiatives include the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART), developed in 2002. The latter was designed in the context of “performance budgeting” and “performance measurement” and focused on evaluating the efficiency of programs.

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  • Significant advances in subsurface containment technology occurred in the 1990s, both with the improvement of the technology and the broader acceptance and applications as a measure for environmental remediation. Since 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and DuPont have collaborated on a series of organized efforts to advance this technology. In that year, these collaborators sponsored an international expert workshop that led to the publication of the first major book on containment technology.

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  • This unusual book is the work of academic experts in tax law and environmental law from five industrial countries: France, Germany, Sweden, the United King- dom, and the United States. As far as we know, it is the first book in English on the subject of environmental tax law—and the first book in any language to look at this issue comparatively.

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  • The term environment broadly indicates the surroundings of an individual organism or a community of organisms, ranging on up to the entire biosphere, the zone of Earth that is able to sustain life. By surroundings is meant all the nonliving and living materials that play any role in an organism's existence, from soil and air to what the organism feeds on and the organisms that may feed on it. Any other factors acting on the organism, such as heat and light and gravitation, make up its environment as well. In the case of human beings, cultural factors may also be included in the term....

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  • Organic carbon concentrations can be reduced by enhanced coagulation, granular activated carbon or membrane filtration, but this fact can also lead to increased in brominated THMs (Black et al, 1996.). A combination of coagulation, ozonation, and biofiltration can effectively reduce trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential (Chaiket et al, 2002.). Natural organic matter (NOM), the main precursor of DBPs, can also be removed by media filters coated with iron oxide

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  • The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this book are entirely those of the authors and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, to its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use.

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  • The residence time that contaminants and nutrients remain in lichen tissue differs among elements (Pucket 1985). Macronutrients, such as nitrogen, sulfur, potassium, magnesium and calcium are comparatively mobile and easily leached and therefore measurable changes in tissue concentrations can occur over weeks or months with seasonal changes in deposition (Boongaprob et al. 1989). In one study, mobile elements reached the same levels in transplants as the indigenous lichens within four to six months (Palomäki et al. 1992).

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  • Despite important problems and deficits concerning the current content of the Directive and namely of its implementation in practice (which are detailed below), the institutes and requirements established by the Directive can be considered as some of the most efficient horizontal measures of environmental protection in existence in Europe. The EIA procedure is in keeping with the polluter pays principle and aims to reduce pressure on the environment. This leads ultimately to social and economic costs for society being reduced....

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  • For its part, Japan generally provides support for irrigation and drainage, and the readjustment of agricultural land. Agri-environmental programs are important aspects of agricultural policy and include measures encouraging farmers to adopt sustainable agricultural practices that reduce the amount of fertilizer and pesticide usage as well as improve the quality of soil with composting.

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  • World Bank documents and speeches now emphasise the need to assess the links between social and environmental changes and macroeconomic performance. Bank President Wolfensohn’s main current reform proposal is to refine and implement his Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF); an attempt to present an integrated, holistic analysis of the relationship between human, structural and environmental change and its traditional goals of macroeconomic stability and economic growth.

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  • Why do some contaminants remain in soils indefinitely? How much of a threat do they pose to human health or the environment? The need for effective and economic site decontamination arises daily. Geoenvironmental Engineering: Contaminated Soils, Pollutant Fate, and Mitigation discusses why soils remain contaminated, focusing on the development of the factors, properties, characteristics, and parameters of soils and individual contaminants.

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  • Research over the past decade has demonstrated the feasibility of extracting topographic information of hydrological interest directly from digital elevation models (DEM). Techniques are available for extracting slope properties, catchment areas, drainage divides, channel networks and other data (Jenson and Domingue, 1988; Mark, 1988; Moore et al., 1991; Martz and Garbrecht, 1992). These techniques are faster and provide more precise and reproducible measurements than traditional manual techniques applied to topographic maps (Tribe, 1991)....

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  • Contaminated bottom sediments and their negative impacts on water quality are a major problem in surface waters throughout the United States as well as in many other parts of the world. Even after elimination of the primary contaminant sources, these bottom sediments will be a main source of contaminants for many years to come. In order to determine environmentally-effective and cost-effective remedial actions, the transport and fate of these sediments and associated contaminants must be understood and quantified.

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  • Soil erosion affects a large part of the Earth surface, and it represents one of the most relevant environmental problems worldwide. Intense land degradation processes that destroyed civilizations in the past are still going on at present. Accelerated soil erosion is one of the main soil threats, as the natural balance between soil formation and loss may be seriously compromised, leading to desertification and permanent loss of fertility and protective function. Soil erosion is not only related to agricultural activities and farming practices, but also to land management in general....

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  • Precision measurement of structures in the micrometer and sub-micrometer ranges is becoming more and more important. Because of the never-ending miniaturization it is central to the precision of production and metrology of microelectronics and micromechanics, but also to the measurement of the size distribution of microparticles, for example, in environmental protection. A number of measuring methods are available to perform these tasks.

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  • With the evaluation method is scientific and has been tested as: methods speculation, rapid assessment methods, research methods analyze the physical environment (water, air), statistical methods,comparison methods, ... to make reliable assessments as a basis for consultation measures to reduce environmental pollution both during construction and operation of the project.

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  • 136 A. Singh et al. 5.2.4 Soil Microcosms One of the simplest methods requiring minimal equipment for soil biodegradation studies is with use of a biometer flask (Bellco, Vineland, NJ, USA). The United Sates Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OCED) have also recommended this method (OECD 1981; McFarland et al. 1991; Skladany and Baker 1994).

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  • The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms and develop a document that reviews the present understanding of such effects and provides guidance for a standard for the protection of populations of aquatic organisms.

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  • Formaldehyde is widely used to manufacture building materials and numerous household products, and is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes. Primary sources include pressed wood products such as particleboard, plywood, and medium density fiberboard (MDF), which is commonly used in flooring, furniture, shelving, cabinetry, paper products, and decorative fabrics and textiles. It also may be used as a biocide in certain paints, coatings, adhesives, and personal care products.

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  • Need for environmental protection: an economic overview; Elements of environmental protection- sustainable agriculture and its dimensions-ecological, economic, technological, social and political; Preservation of biological diversity. Integrated farming and organic farming; Institutional measures and regulatory tools for environmental protection; Economic instruments for environmental protection. Issues of food security and international irade in relation to environmental protection.

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