A newcomer to the scene, aerobic granulation is on its way to becoming the hot new technology for high-efficiency wastewater treatment. Thus far, intensive research has been conducted with regard to the understanding of the mechanism of aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) and its application in treating a wide variety of municipal and industrial wastewater. This basic research has promoted the technology from laboratory-study all the way to the present pilot- and full-scale application.
Triterpenes exhibit a wide range of structural diversity produced by a
sequence of biosynthetic reactions. Cyclization of oxidosqualene is the ini-tial origin of structural diversity of skeletons in their biosynthesis, and sub-sequent regio- and stereospecific hydroxylation of the triterpene skeleton
produces further structural diversity.
CD40 is areceptorwithnumerous functions in theactivation
of antigenpresentingcells (APCs), particularlydendritic cells
(DC). Using phage display technology, we identified linear
peptides containing a novel FPGN/S consensus sequence
that enhances the binding of phage to a purified murine
CD40-immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein (CD40-Ig), but
not to Ig alone. To examine the ability theFPGN/Speptides
to enhance adenoviral infection of CD40-positive cells, we
used bifunctional peptides consisting of an FPGN-contain-ing peptide covalently linked to an adenoviral knob-binding
Transglutaminase (TGase) catalyses the post-translational modiﬁcation of proteins by transamidation of available glutamine residues. While several TGase genes of ﬁsh and arthropods have been cloned and appear to have similar structures to those of mammals, no homologous gene has been found in lower eukaryotes. We have cloned the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum TGase cDNA using RT-PCR with degenerated primers, based on the partial amino acid sequence of the puriﬁed enzyme. The cDNA contained a 2565-bp ORF encoding a 855-residue polypeptide.
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) D⁄AUF1 functions in
mRNA genesis in the nucleus and modulates mRNA decay in the cyto-plasm. Although it is primarily nuclear, it shuttles between the nucleus and
cytoplasm. We studied the nuclear import and export of the last exon-enco-ding sequence common to all its isoforms by its expression as a green fluor-escent protein-fusion protein in HeLa cells and by heterokaryon assay.
The textbook of Open Channel Hydraulics for Engineers, also called Applied Hydraulics, emphasizes the dynamics of the open-channel flow, by attempting to provide a complete framework of the basic equations of motion of the fluid, which are used as building blocks for the treatment of many practical problems. The structure of the document, with seven chapters totally, follows a logical sequence from a description and classification of Fluid Mechanics and Open Channel Flows, as reviewed in Chapter 1. A development of the basic equation of motion for uniform flow is encountered in Chapter 2.
Agroforestry is one of the sustainable approaches to land-use management where both agriculture
and forestry combine into an integrated production system to get maximum benefits (Kidd and
Pimentel, 1992; Nair, 1998). As per ICRAF (International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, now
World Agroforestry Centre), ‘‘agroforestry is a deliberate integration of woody components with
agricultural and pastoral operations on the same piece of land either in a spatial or temporal
sequence in such a way that both ecological and economic interactions occur between them.’’...
Dehydrogenases and reductases are enzymes of fundamental metabolic
importance that often adopt a specific structure known as the Rossmann
fold. This fold, consisting of a six-strandedb-sheet surrounded bya-helices,
is responsible for coenzyme binding. We have developed a method to iden-tify Rossmann folds and predict their coenzyme specificity (NAD, NADP
or FAD) using only the amino acid sequence as input.
We now turn our attention to Double Diamond Skis, a company that manufactures
a high-performance deep-powder ski, and that uses process costing to determine its unit
product costs. The company’s production process is illustrated in Exhibit 4–4 . Skis go
through a sequence of five processing departments, starting with the Shaping and Milling
Department and ending with the Finishing and Pairing Department.
Proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase are serine proteinases of the polymor-phonuclear neutrophils, which are considered to have both similar localiza-tion and ligand specificity because of their high sequence similarity.
However, recent studies indicate that they might have different and yet
complementary physiologic roles.
A gene encoding a eugenol oxidase was identified in the genome fromRho-dococcus sp. strain RHA1. The bacterial FAD-containing oxidase shares
45% amino acid sequence identity with vanillyl alcohol oxidase from the
fungus Penicillium simplicissimum. Eugenol oxidase could be expressed at
high levels in Escherichia coli, which allowed purification of 160 mg of
eugenol oxidase from 1 L of culture. Gel permeation experiments and
macromolecular MS revealed that the enzyme forms homodimers.
The gene encoding RNase HII from the psychrotrophic bacterium,Shewa-nellasp.SIB1was cloned, overexpressed inEscherichia coli, and the recom-binant protein was purified and biochemically characterized. SIB1
RNase HII is a monomeric protein with 212 amino acid residues and
shows an amino acid sequence identity of 64% to E. coliRNase HII.
After the logframe matrix has been completed, further planning can
take place to add operational detail to the plan. An activity schedule is
a method of presenting the activities of a project, which identifies
their logical sequence and any dependencies that exist between them,
and provides a basis for allocating management responsibility for
completing each activity. With the activity schedule prepared, the job
of further specifying inputs and scheduling costs can be started.
The enzyme fumarase is a conserved protein in all organisms with regard
to its sequence, structure and function. This enzyme participates in the tri-carboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria which is essential for cellular respira-tion in eukaryotes.
To enhance silencing and avoid off-target effects, siRNAs are often
designed with an intentional bias to ensure that the end of the siRNA that
contains the guide strand 5¢ end is less stably hybridized relative to the end
containing the passenger strand 5¢ end. One means by which this is accom-plished is to introduce a terminal mismatch, typically by changing the
passenger strand sequence to impair its hybridization with the guide strand
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) may survive in aquatic environments with low
oxygen partial pressures. We investigated the contribution of respiratory
proteins to hypoxia tolerance inC. auratus. We determined the complete
coding sequence of hemoglobinaandband myoglobin, as well as partial
cDNAs from neuroglobin and cytoglobin.
Dermaseptin S9 (Drs S9), GLRSKIWLWVLLMIWQESNKFKKM, iso-lated from frog skin, does not resemble any of the cationic and amphipathic
antimicrobial peptides identified to date, having a highly hydrophobic core
sequence flanked at either side by cationic termini.
Sequence alignments of human molybdopterin synthase sulfurase, MOCS3,
showed that the N-terminal domain is homologous to Escherichia coli
MoeB, whereas the C-terminal domain is homologous to rhodanese-like
proteins. Previous studies showed that the activity of the separately purified
rhodanese-like domain of MOCS3 displayed 1000-fold lower activity in
comparison to bovine rhodanese with thiosulfate as sulfur source.
More than 40 years ago, bone morphogenetic proteins
(BMPs) were recognized by their ability to induce ectopic
bone and cartilage formation, but it was not until the late
1980s that the proteins responsible for ‘bone formation by
autoinduction’ were isolated and sequenced.