This study looks at whether Vietnam could adopt the Payment for Environmental Services (PES) approach as part of its national conservation strategy. Using a pilot study in the country’s uplands, it investigates how such a scheme might run and assesses its impact on the environment and on the local people’s livelihoods. Through a review of current Vietnamese conservation practice, it assesses the barriers to the adoption of such schemes and the factors that might encourage their implementation....
Agricultural development is widely recognized as crucial for poverty reduction. At
the same time, agricultural expansion and ever more intensive practices are widely
recognized for their contribution to ecosystem degradation. Less well recognized is
that, in many cases, agriculture offers the potential to generate both poverty
reduction and better environmental outcomes. The studies presented in this volume
look at one policy tool that may address this gap: payments for environmental
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa hoc quốc tế đề tài : How can social and environmental services be provided for mobile Tibetan herders? Collaborative examples from Qinghai Province, China
In contemporary debates about democratic governance, the concept of
accountability is hard to avoid. At least from a European perspective, recent
innovations in political and administrative decision-making have multiplied
opportunities for citizens to hold to account those who exercise governmental
authority. Or so we are told. Whether busy modernizing constitutional
structures or realigning public services along market-led lines, our political
representatives have proclaimed a new era of open and responsive government.
Ecosystems provide a wide variety of marketable goods, fish and lumber
being two familiar examples. However, society is increasingly recognizing the
myriad functions—the observable manifestations of ecosystem processes such
as nutrient recycling, regulation of climate, and maintenance of biodiversity—
that they provide, without which human civilizations could not thrive. Derived
from the physical, biological, and chemical processes at work in natural ecosystems,
these functions are seldom experienced directly by users of the resource.
William Bentley is the principal of Salmon Brook Associates in North Granby CT.
He recently retired as Professor of Forest Policy and Management at the SUNY
College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse NY, where he was Chair,
Faculty of Forest and Natural Resources Management. He taught forest and natural
resource economics at Michigan, Yale and other universities, managed Forestry
Research for the Crown Zellerbach Corporation in the 1970s, worked for the Ford
Foundation in New Delhi, India, and later was a senior program officer with
Around one third of our visits were to firms for whom financial services is not their
main line of business and sell PPI as a tertiary product. Of these nearly a half had not
properly engaged with their regulatory responsibilities and had in general failed to
meet the standards of TCF and ICOB.
Motor retailers have shown some of the biggest improvements since our earlier
work, for instance, they have been proactive in changing their sales processes to
better align them with TCF objectives.
The foundation of human health rests on healthy, stable ecosystems. Our biotic
environment provides us with the fundamentals necessary for healthy lives—food,
water, oxygen, warmth, light, and fuel. Earth's ecosystems also supply the raw
materials for our health-care services. The global fraying of ecosystems has grave
implications for our health and our ability to treat illnesses, now and in the future.
A detailed situational analysis of the nutrition situation in country, determinants of malnutrition and
current nutrition interventions, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats can be found
in annex 2. In brief, eighteen years of war and insecurity have had devastating effects on the
nutrition and health status of the people of Somalia, which was already precarious even before.
This 1993 document entitled "Assessment of Sources of Air, Water, and Land Pollution: A Guide to Rapid Source Inventory Techniques" provides techniques for conducting source inventories in Chapter 2 and describes models for estimating air emissions under current controls in Chapter 3. Appendix II includes the United Nations (UN) classification of industries and services.
The idea for this book arose during the planning phases of an International Conference
in Edmonton, Canada in July 2004 entitled “The Science of Changing Climates
— Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands.” The conference was organized
jointly by the Canadian Societies of Animal Science, Plant Science and Soil Science
with support from Natural Resources Canada/Canadian Forest Service because they
saw climate change as one of the most serious environmental problems facing the
Seventy-five percent of the world’s poor live in rural areas and most are involved in farming. In the 21st century, agriculture remains fundamental to economic growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental sustainability. The World Bank’s Agriculture and Rural Development publication series presents recent analyses of issues that affect agriculture’s role as a source of economic development, rural livelihoods, and environmental services.
Availability of fossil fuels became readily and abundantly available
during the mid to latter part of the 20th century, and building
design responded with mechanical and electrical systems that in
many instances consumed the fuel excessively. Large single glazed
areas caused over-heating, glare and solar discomfort in the summer,
combined with cold draughts and high heat losses in the winter.
Thermostatic control was often rudimentary and compensated by
opening and closing windows accordingly.
Seventy-five percent of the world’s poor live in rural areas and most are involved
in agriculture. In the 21st century, agriculture remains fundamental to economic
growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental sustainability. The World Bank’s
Agriculture and Rural Development publication series presents recent analyses of
issues that affect the role of agriculture, including livestock, fisheries, and forestry,
as a source of economic development, rural livelihoods, and environmental services.
There are awfully many introductory expositions of economics available. Why
bother to write another?
Well, think of economics as a gigantic architecture with deep cellar vaults and
high towers. It has gorgeous dining halls, remote chambers, and balconies that
allow breathtaking views of the surrounding countryside.
In this allegory, the author of a textbook is a guide and the readership a group of
visitors taken on a tour of the complex. The architecture is large and the time the
visitors may spend is short (moreover, they are easily bored and tire fast).
The last quarter-century has seen increasing awareness of
the interactions between human societies and the natural
environment in which they thrive and upon which they
depend. This awareness has been heightened by concerns
about resource scarcity, environmental degradation, and
global environmental issues. The combination of increased
awareness of the environment and recognition of the
primitive state of much of the nation’s environmental data has led to a
widespread desire to supplement U.S. national economic accounts to include
natural resources and environmental assets.
As rates of deforestation and land degradation, and losses of biodiversity and
ecosystem services, continue to rise globally, the international community is faced
with the challenge of finding land use interventions that can mitigate or reduce the
impact of these environmental issues. Agroforestry, the integration of trees in farming
systems, has the potential for providing rural livelihoods and habitats for species
outside formally protected lands, connecting nature reserves, and alleviating resourceuse
pressure on conservation areas.
Public management reform is one of the most popular topics in the field of public
administration. Both academics and practitioners have been actively involved in
studying it. Researchers have published numerous articles and books examining
the background, motives, concepts, strategies, implementation, effectiveness, and
lessons of many reform policies and programs.
Compared to other ecosystems, wetlands have received an exceptional amount of
attention. Wetlands are valuable as sources, sink and transformers of a multitude
of chemical, biological and genetic materials. They stabilize water supplies, clean
polluted waters, protect shorelines, and recharge groundwater aquifers. They have
increasingly become recognized for their unique ecological functions in the
environment and are the focus of increased research by scientists and study
programs by schools, communities, and nature centers.