Enzyme function

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  • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. A protein is simply a polypeptide composed of amino acids linked by a peptide bond, and the term generally, but not always, refers to the folded conformation. To understand how an enzyme functions, including its binding and functional properties, it is necessary to know the properties of the amino acids and how the amino acids are linked together, including the torsion angles of the bonds and the space occupied, and the interactions of the atoms leading to the final conformations of the folded protein.

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  • Living processes consists almost entirely of biochemical reactions. Without catalysts these reactions would not occur fast enough to sustain life.How does an enzyme do this? ------ because enzyme is a catalytic protein-a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Retrovirology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: DNA double strand break repair enzymes function at multiple steps in retroviral infection...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Effects of the K65R and K65R/M184V reverse transcriptase mutations in subtype C HIV on enzyme function and drug resistance...

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  • Enzymes may be described as 'functional catalytic proteins'. I do hope, however, that this volume will re-introduce them as useful and targeted workforces. Like the more familiar human workforces, they have preferred working conditions, may be trained (cultured) to carry out very specific tasks, and they cannot function when their food (substrate) runs out.

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  • The book is intended to provide a sound basis for enzyme reactor design based on kinetic principles, and give an updated vision of the potentials and limitations of enzyme biocatalysis, especially with respect to recent applications in processes of organic synthesis. The book is structured in the form of a textbook that goes from basic principles of enzyme structure and function to reactor design for homogeneous systems with soluble enzymes, and heterogeneous systems with insolubilized enzymes.

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  • We live in the age of biology—the human and many other organisms’ genomes have been sequenced and we are starting to understand the function of the metabolic machinery responsible for life on our planet. Thousands of new genes have been discovered, many of these coding for enzymes of yet unknown function. Understanding the kinetic behavior of an enzyme provides clues to its possible physiological role. From a biotechnological point of view, knowledge of the catalytic properties of an enzyme is required for the design of immobilized enzyme-based industrial processes.

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  • Tr-ớc đây, con ng-ời th-ờng quan tâm nghiên cứu v sử dụng những sản phẩm thực phẩm giu dinh d-ỡng v giá trị năng l-ợng cao.

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  • - Polysaccharides are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. - Some polysaccharides serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells. - Other polysaccharides serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism. - The architecture and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and by the positions of its glycosidic linkages.

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  • All eukaryotic topoisomerase I enzymes are monomeric enzymes, whereas the kinetoplastid family (TrypanosomaandLeishmania) possess an unusual bisubunit topoisomerase I. To determine what happens to the enzyme architecture and catalytic property if the two subunits are fused, and to explore the functional relationship between the two subunits, we describe herein vitro gene fusion of Leishmaniabisubunit topoisomerase I into a single ORF encoding a new monomeric topoisomerase I (LdTOPIL-fus-S).

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  • After studying this chapter you will be able to: Define Catalyst and know the properties of a catalyst; know the 6 classes of enzymes and there functions, be able to classify a specific enzyme if given the reaction; Define Coenzyme, apoenzyme, holoenzyme;...

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  • In this chapter, you will be able to understand: Define transition state, understand basic properties of a transition state, understand why enzymes bind the transition state with higher affinity than the substrate, know common enzymatic mechanisms, know types of amino acid residues that function in enzyme active sites, know what types of RXNS that each participates,...

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  • Pyrimidine biosynthesis enzymes function in many cellular processes and are closely associated with pyrimidine antagonists used in cancer chemo-therapy. These enzymes are well characterized from bacteria to mammals, but not in a simple metazoan. To study the pyrimidine biosynthesis path-way inCaenorhabditis elegans, we screened for mutants exhibiting resis-tance to the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).

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  • Human mitochondrial NAD(P) + -dependent malic enzyme (m-NAD-ME) is a malic enzyme isoform with dual cofactor specificity, ATP inhibition and substrate cooperativity. The determinant of ATP inhibition in malic enzyme isoforms has not yet been identified. Sequence alignment of nucleo-tide-binding sites of ME isoforms revealed that Lys346 is conserved uniquely in m-NAD-ME.

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  • Nowadays, it is well known, a number of enzymes derived from a variety of different plants and microorganisms has been reported to 3.000. Among these, many of them p lay an important role in many practical applications, especially, hydrolases, in the food-processing for producing functional food of high quality. Enzymes seem to have a promising future. There is a presentation of some enzymes have successful application in the food-processing. The productivity (A%) of spare protein hydrolysis, catalyzed by papain has been calculated: for Scenedesmus = 64.0; for Spirulina = 52.

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  • Enzymes that function within plants, animals, and microorganisms are fundamental to life, and their contributions to metabolic pathways and processes have been studied extensively. For over 100 years there has been interest in what today is called ecological or environmental enzymology. This aspect of enzymology originates from the work of Woods, who, in 1899, wrote about the survival and function in soil of plant peroxidases following their release from decaying plant roots.

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  • These unique characteristics plus the functionalities from the materials themselves impart nanofibers with a number of novel properties for applications in areas as various as biomedical engineering, wound healing, drug delivery and release control, catalyst and enzyme carriers, filtration, environment protection, composite reinforcement, sensors, optics, energy harvest and storage, and many others. More and more emphasis has recently been placed on large-scale nanofiber production, the key technology to the wide usages of nanofibers in practice....

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  • Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms. Cellulose, starch, chitin, proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers. This book comprehensively reviews and compiles information on biopolymers in 30 chapters. The book covers occurrence, synthesis, isolation and production, properties and applications, modification, and the relevant analysis methods to reveal the structures and properties of some biopolymers.

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  • At its inception, the original plan for this symposium was to emphasize the medical aspects of inorganic chemistry, rather than to go over once more new developments in bioinorganic chemistry, important as the subject is, since the latter topic has been treated many times in recent symposia reviews and monographs.

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  • But up to now not only few but also rather inadequate empirical segmentation studies of these markets have been carri ed out and published. So, this book will present the results of a newer and better designed segmentation study of Chinese consumer goods markets. This study identifies and characterizes 12 market segments that are internally homogeneous and externally heterogeneous with regard to the product related needs and wants of their members. Moreover, it explains the possibilities of a segment specific tailoring of some other elements of the marketing mix.

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