The book is intended to provide a sound basis for enzyme reactor design based on kinetic principles, and give an updated vision of the potentials and limitations of enzyme biocatalysis, especially with respect to recent applications in processes of organic synthesis. The book is structured in the form of a textbook that goes from basic principles of enzyme structure and function to reactor design for homogeneous systems with soluble enzymes, and heterogeneous systems with insolubilized enzymes.
Diffusion is the transport of matter from one point to another by thermal
motion of atoms or molecules. It is relatively fast in gases, slow in liquids, and
very slow in solids. Diffusion plays a key rˆole in many processes as diverse as
intermixing of gases and liquids, permeation of atoms or molecules through
membranes, evaporation of liquids, drying of timber, doping silicon wafers to
make semiconductor devices, and transport of thermal neutrons in nuclear
F-ATP synthase synthesizes ATP at the expense of ion
motive forcebyarotarycouplingmechanism. Acentral
shaft, subunitc, functionally connects the ion-driven rotary
motor, FO, with the rotary chemical reactor, F1.Using
polarized spectrophotometry we have demonstrated previ-ously the functional rotation of the C-terminala-helical
portion ofcin the supposed ‘hydrophobic bearing’ formed
by the (ab)3hexagon. In apparent contradiction with these
spectroscopic results, an engineered disulfide bridge between
thea-helixofcand subunitadidnot impair enzyme activity....