Enzymology

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  • Enzyme học (Enzymology) là một môn học có vị trí then chốt trong hóa sinh đang phát triển mạnh mẽ và xâm nhập vào rất nhiều ngành khoa học, đặc biệt thu hút sự chú ý của các nhà sinh học và sinh y học vì những hiểu biết cơ bản về enzyme có liên quan mật thiết đến sinh học phân tử và y học phân tử và là những kiến thức cơ bản rất quan trọng của sinh học và sinh y học.

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  • Enzymes that function within plants, animals, and microorganisms are fundamental to life, and their contributions to metabolic pathways and processes have been studied extensively. For over 100 years there has been interest in what today is called ecological or environmental enzymology. This aspect of enzymology originates from the work of Woods, who, in 1899, wrote about the survival and function in soil of plant peroxidases following their release from decaying plant roots.

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  • RNA turnover and processing have now been demonstrated to be important steps that directly affect protein synthesis and the cell’s ability to survive in nature. However, the analysis of mRNA decay and polyadenylation in Escherichia coli has long been considered technically difficult. The development over the past 15 years of methods for the isolation and characterization of both mRNA and polyadenylated species has made the study of these important pathways of RNA metabolism more straightforward (Arraiano et al., 1988; O’Hara et al., 1995; Mohanty and Kushner, 1999)....

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  • The contents of this book focus on the recent investigations in molecular biology where applications of topology seem to be very stimulating. The volume is based on the talks and lectures given by participants of the three-month program “Topology in Condensed Matter”, which was held in the Max Planck Institut fur Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany, 8May–31 July 2002, under the scientific direction of Professors M. Kl´eman, S. Novikov and myself.

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  • Enzyme catalysis in low water containing organic solvents is finding an increasing number of applications in diverse areas.This review focuses on some aspects which have not been reviewed elsewhere.Different strategies for obtaining higher activity and stability in such media are described.In this context, the damaging role of lyophilization and the means of overcoming such effects are discussed.Ultrasoni-cation and microwave assistance are two emerging approa-ches for enhancing reaction rates in low water media.

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  • Riftia pachyptila(Vestimentifera) is a giant tubeworm living around the volcanic deep-sea vents of the East Pacific Rise. This animal is devoid of a digestive tract and lives in an intimate symbiosis with a sulfur-oxidizing chemoauto-trophic bacterium. This bacterial endosymbiont is localized in the cells of a richly vascularized organ of the worm: the trophosome.

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  • Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) comprise the leading cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson’s disease, with age of onset and symptoms identical to those of idiopathic forms of the disorder. Several of these pathogenic mutations are thought to affect its kinase activity, so understanding the roles of LRRK2, and modulation of its kinase activity, may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for treating Parkinson’s disease.

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  • 3-Methyl-branched fatty acids, as phytanic acid, undergo peroxisomala-oxidation in which they are shortened by 1 carbon atom. This process includes four steps: activation, 2-hydroxylation, thiamine pyrophosphate dependent cleavage and aldehyde dehydrogenation. The thiamine pyrophosphate dependence of the third step is unique in peroxisomal mammalian enzymology. Human pathology due to a deficient alpha-oxidation is mostly linked to mutations in the gene coding for the second enzyme of the sequence, phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase....

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  • Human cytochrome P450 17a-hydroxylase (CYP17) cata-lyses not only the 17a-hydroxlation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the C17,20-side chain cleavage (lyase) of 17a-hydroxypregnenolone, necessary for the biosynthesis of C21-glucocorticoids and C19-androgens, but also catalyses the 16a-hydroxylation of progesterone. In efforts to under-stand the complex enzymology of CYP17, structure/func-tion relationships have been reported previously after expressingrecombinant DNAs, encodingCYP17 from various species, in nonsteroidogenic mammalian or yeast cells. ...

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