From HIV to influenza, the battle between infectious agents and the immune system is at the heart of disease. Knowledge of how and why parasites vary to escape recognition by the immune system is central to vaccine design, the control of epidemics, and our fundamental understanding of parasite ecology and evolution. As the first comprehensive synthesis of parasite variation at the molecular, population, and evolutionary levels, this book is essential reading for students and researchers throughout biology and biomedicine....
In a Global scenario, economically progressive nations have developed medical
sciences. But still it lacks precise information during the enhancement of potent drugs
to combat ailment, which is the legacy of the organisms that generate diseases. Rising
countries had long been perceived the threat, which at times, down the lane has been
the major factor for magnanimous economic disaster and human poverty. Lot of
resources was put into force by the world community to abscond the microbial fauna
and genetically inherited diseases to contain them within the safe limits.
The quality of water, whether it is used for drinking, irrigation or recreational purposes, is
significant for health in both developing and developed countries worldwide. Water
quality can have a major impact on health, both through outbreaks of waterborne disease
and by contributing to the background rates of disease. Accordingly, countries develop
water quality standards to protect public health.
There are a lot of references of rickettsioses acquired by travellers and considered imported
diseases (McDonald et al., 1988; Bottieau et al. 2006; Freedman et al., 2006; Askling et al.
2009; Chen & Wilson, 2009; Jensenius et al., 2009; Stokes & Walters, 2009).
Nowadays ticks cause most travel-associated rickettsioses. Ticks are considered to be one of
the most important vectors of infectious diseases in the world, preceded only by
mosquitoes. Therefore, tick-borne rickettsioses are endemic all over the world (Hechemy et
Infectious diseases have been known for thousands of years, although accurate
information on their etiology has only been available for about a century.
In the medical teachings of Hippocrates, the cause of infections occurring frequently
in a certain locality or during a certain period (epidemics)was sought
in “changes” in the air according to the theory of miasmas. This concept, still
reflected in terms such as “swamp fever” or “malaria,” was the predominant
academic opinion until the end of the 19th century, despite the fact that the
Dutch cloth merchant A.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Theoretical basis to measure the impact of shortlasting control of an infectious disease on the epidemic peak...
Biosecurity and quarantine are integral parts of any successful poultry production system. Biosecurity
refers to those measures taken to prevent or control the introduction and spread of infectious agents
to a flock. Such infectious agents, whether they cause clinical or subclinical disease, significantly
reduce the productivity, profitability and long term financial viability of a poultry operation.
Biosecurity is about managing risk to meet the objectives stated above.
Developing countries’ markets depend extensively (technically and financially) on
international services. Reasons for this include (among others) structural, financial and
technical constraints, including the small size of markets, under-capitalization of
insurance companies and insufficient experience and know-how. Usually, insurance
industries there also have a shortage of skilled personnel.
General symptoms include morning stiffness of more than 60 minutes, fatigue, sometimes
even slightly elevated temperature, but the main initial symptom is low back pain at night
and in the morning. All patients with low back pain should be questioned about a positive
family history concerning rheumatic diseases, as the risk of developing this illness is higher
in patients where family members already have been diagnosed with ankylosing
Viêm não tiên phát: Viêm não này xuất hiện khi virus trực tiếp tấn công não và tủy sống (tủy gai). Thể viêm não này có thể xuất hiện vào bất cứ thời gian nào trong năm (viêm não tản phát: sporadic encephalitis) hoặc có thể xuất hiện theo mùa đôi khi thành dịch (viêm não dịch tễ: epidemic encephalitis).
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) undertook drug resistance studies during 1965-
67 in nine urban areas of the country. However, this exercise was not a surveillance study
and did not use strict sampling techniques, the centres being selected more for logistic
considerations than for epidemiological reasons. Sputum specimens collected from all
patients attending chest clinics were tested for drug susceptibility to streptomycin,
Isoniazid, para amino salicyctic acid (PAS) and thioacetazone.
Anti-choice activists already succeeded in changing the legal standards for assessing restrictions
on a woman’s right to choose; in Casey (1992), the court abandoned the most exacting standard
of legal review applied to fundamental rights, “strict scrutiny,” and instead implemented the
less protective standard of asking merely whether a restriction imposes an “undue burden” on a
woman’s right to choose.
33 A second avenue of attack on Roe is to restrict or eliminate
altogether its protections for women’s health.
This report provides a basic but comprehensive demographic, social, economic and health profile of
Cambodia’s older population based on the 2004 Survey of Elderly in Cambodia (SEC), a representative
survey of persons age 60 and over conducted in Phnom Penh and the five largest provinces. As such it
represents the first comprehensive examination of the situation of Cambodian elders based on a widely
Members of the genus Vibrio cause a number of important infectious syndromes. Classic among them is cholera, a devastating diarrheal disease caused by V. cholerae that has been responsible for seven global pandemics and much suffering over the past two centuries. Epidemic cholera remains a significant public health concern in the developing world today. Other vibrioses caused by other Vibrio species include syndromes of diarrhea, soft tissue infection, or primary sepsis. All Vibrio species are highly motile, facultatively anaerobic, curved gram-negative rods with one or more flagella.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) or multiple personality disorder is assumed to have its
onset in childhood, but it is usually diagnosed in the fourth decade. It affects
preponderantly women and typically runs a chronic, waxing and waning course.
Comorbidities with other conditions (such as mood disorders and substance abuse) and its
plethora of clinical manifestations may hinder timely diagnosing.
The human genome is largely made of complex sequences evolved over time due to
replication,mutations and insertion of foreign DNA. Based on the nucleotide distribution and
functional significance, the genome has been categorized into different block of sequences,
namely genes or coding and non-coding regions. A special type of sequence located near
genes, in relation to spread of DNA methylation and dinucleotide frequencies are the
This paper provides a review of the methods for measuring portfo-
lio performance and the evidence on the performance of profession-
ally managed investment portfolios. Traditional performance measures,
strongly inﬂuenced by the Capital Asset Pricing Model of Sharpe
(1964), were developed prior to 1990. We discuss some of the prop-
erties and important problems associated with these measures.
The storage of tissue-engineered products is an attractive target for technological
development. Since tissue-engineered products usually consist of living cells, technical
issues include the limited shelf life of the cells and the use of specialized conditions for
transportation. Without storage, treatment with cells requires timely harvesting from the
donor, which significantly affects the availability of tissue-engineered products.
Humidity promotes the
growth of moulds
The majority of the health effects linked to dampness and moisture
of buildings are those of the respiratory system. They range from
irritation of mucous membranes, respiratory symptoms, and
infections to diseases such as asthma and allergy. However , it is still
not known precisely how dampness leads to these symptoms and
which are the main substances responsible.
Humidity problems in buildings may originate from leaks,
condensation, or the ground.
Preparation and characterisation of attenuated cold-adapted inﬂuenza A reassortants derived from the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 donor strain presents the assay was capable of detecting interference where the infectivity ratio for A/Len/17 and A/Beij/32 was 1:7. Progeny viruses were characterised genetically by ampliﬁcation of deﬁned regions within each of the six internal genes by PCR and identiﬁcation of the products by restriction enzyme analysis.