Vegetables and fruits are rich sources of antioxidants. There is
good evidence that eating a diet that includes plenty of
vegetables and fruits is healthy, and official U.S. Government
policy urges people to eat more of these foods. Research has
shown that people who eat more vegetables and fruits have
lower risks of several diseases; however, it is not clear whether
these results are related to the amount of antioxidants in
vegetables and fruits, to other components of these foods, to
other factors in people’s diets, or to other lifestyle choices....
Research objectives: To describe some epidemiological characteristics of lower RTIs of mountainous married women at reproductive age in Thai Nguyen in 2012; to determine factors of lower RTIs of mountainous married women at reproductive age in Thai Nguyen; to evaluate the effect of RTIs prevention solutions for mountainous women in Thanh Cong commune, Pho Yen district, Thai Nguyen province after 2 years of intervention.
After many years of studying microbiology, biofilms, and public health, it became
my ambition to produce a book on these three areas. Having researched substantially
into the formation and development of biofilms, particularly in potable water, I felt
a book that could consolidate all the information on their public health significance
was needed. This book provides a snapshot of public health and water with an
appreciation of what a biofilm is and how well it presents a safe haven for pathogens,
while factorizing unreported and reported water-related diseases....
The successful epidemiologic evaluation of any particular disease
or condition has several prerequisites. Two of the most important
prerequisites are that the condition should be accurately defi ned
and that there should be measurable outcomes of interest.
Another requirement is that there must be some systematic way
of data collection or surveillance that will allow the measurement
of the outcomes of interest and associated risk factors. The epidemiologic
evaluation of critical illness associated with pregnancy
has met with mixed success on all of these counts....
Cancers of the endometrium, ovary and cervix share
certain characteristics. However, etio-pathogenesis of all
the gynecological malignancies is yet to be explored. Even
though the etiologic factors are generally environmental,
the exact cause of each gynecological cancer is not known
(Senate Community Affairs References Committee,
Commonwealth of Australia, 2006). Worldwide, cancer
incidence rates vary widely between different geographic
regions and ethnic groups.
The common theme that attracts many to emergency practice is an interested in all of
the most exciting aspects of each major specialty but a reluctance to giving up on what
other specialties offered at the same time. Emergency medicine, unlike any other field,
combines all of these aspects for its practitioners. However, while offering a
combination of skills and knowledge found nowhere else, it offers unusual challenges
at the same time.
In September 2006, as a result of advocacy by international and national non-governmental
organisations (NGOs), the United Nations (UN) General Assembly finally adopted the target of
universal access to reproductive health. This health key issues guide explores issues relating to
universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services using a rights-based
approach. The guide examines factors that inhibit access to and use of SRH services, and
discusses methods for removing barriers to care and improving access.
Cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, strokes and diseases of other arteries, is a major
cause of early death and disability. For many years the major markers of disease risk have been well recognised:
these include high blood cholesterol levels and smoking. But it has also been recognised that these markers do
not account for all cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, treatments that are highly effective in altering these
markers, for instance the ‘statin’ drugs used to lower cholesterol, do not remove risk entirely: typically they
reduce it by about 30% or less.
The prognosis for individuals with liver cancer is frequently poor. Cancers include those which have metastasized to the liver from elsewhere, reflecting advanced stage disease where cure is rarely possible. Similarly, primary liver cancer frequently complicates chronic liver disease, which further limits therapeutic options. Despite these dismal facts, there are signs that change is imminent. Not only have imaging modalities and surgical techniques improved, but preventive strategies and medical therapies show promise.
Oxidative stress state is involved in the aging process as well as in a vast array of
pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular complications, diabetes,
cancer, and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.
Demographic and epidemiological transitions and changes in lifestyle are leading to the
emergence of cancer and other chronic diseases as public health problems in India. Cancer
pattern in India reveals the predominance of tobacco related cancers, which are amenable
to primary prevention. Cancer Registries in different parts of the country reveal that majority
of cancer cases present in an advanced stage and makes treatment options prolonged and
This study examines how different types of performance measures were
weighted in a subjective balanced scorecard bonus plan adopted by a major financial
services firm. Drawing upon economic and psychological studies on performance evaluation
and compensation criteria, we develop hypotheses regarding the weights placed
on different types of measures.
Characterization of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture (AnGR) involves three
types of information: phenotypic, genetic and historical. The weight given to each depends
on the country (e.g. whether it is developed or developing) and the objective (e.g. improve-
ment, conservation or breed differentiation). These guidelines focus on the collection and
use of phenotypic information.
Chief complaint: Reason for admission to the ICU.
History of present illness: This section should included pertinent chronological
events leading up to the hospitalization. It should include events during
hospitalization and eventual admission to the ICU.
Prior cardiac history: Angina (stable, unstable, changes in frequency),
exacerbating factors (exertional, rest angina). History of myocardial infarction,
heart failure, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, angioplasty. Previous
exercise treadmill testing, ECHO, ejection fraction.
Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued expansion and diversification
becoming one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Many new
destinations have emerged alongside the traditional ones of Europe and North America. In
the next years an increase of travelling is expected, and the number of related infections will
also be higher (http://www.unwto.org/facts/menu.html). Rickettsioses are an important
chapter in the field of travel medicine.
The immune system, composed of a variety of cell types and soluble factors, is geared toward the recognition of and response to "foreign" substances termed antigens. Vaccines convey antigens from living or killed microorganisms (or protein or carbohydrate molecules derived from these antigens) to elicit immune responses that are generally protective but can occasionally backfire and cause harm to the recipient.
Haemophilus influenzae was first recognized in 1892 by Pfeiffer, who erroneously concluded that the bacterium was the cause of influenza. The bacterium is a small (1- by 0.3-µm) gram-negative organism of variable shape; hence, it is often described as a pleomorphic coccobacillus. In clinical specimens such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sputum, it frequently stains only faintly with phenosafranin and therefore can easily be overlooked. H. influenzae grows both aerobically and anaerobically.
Over the past decade, treatment of neovascular
age-related macular degeneration has evolved
from overall retinal ablation to more targeted and
retinal-sparing therapy, beginning with the advent
of photodynamic therapy and continuing with the
development of inhibitors to vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF). This article summarizes the
key clinical trials with photodynamic and anti-
VEGF therapies to provide insight into and a
framework around which we can choose the optimal
treatments (including dosing) for our patients....
Acute emergencies in gastroenterology are extraordinarily
severe conditions with high morbidity and mortality.
Particularly severe diseases include acute pancreatitis,
a difficult course of non-specific intestinal inflammations
manifested by toxic colon or acute intestinal obstruction,
and even acutely developed intestinal pseudo-obstruction
(Ogilvie’s syndrome) or variceal and non-variceal bleeding
into the gastrointestinal tract.
Neither randomized clinical trials nor meta-
analysis are available and evidence is based on a number of retrospective studies with
multivariate for mortality risk factors or data from national cancer registries (Gilliland et al.,
1997; Hundahl et al., 1998). Unfortunately, very remarkable differences in patient’s selection,
staging systems, and clinical management affect the available studies. In particular,
radioiodine treatment is not routinely carried out in a standard manner and outcome results
of different studies are thus not comparable (Sciuto et al., 2009).