Epidemiological facts

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  • In a crunch, when interviewing an eyewitness, Dragnet’s Sgt. Joe Friday would implore, ‘‘Just the facts, ma’am, just the facts.’’ Our textbook, Just the Facts in Emergency Medicine, aims to provide just that for emergency physicians who are studying for either the written board (re)certification examination in emergency medicine or the in-training written examination

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  • The prognosis for individuals with liver cancer is frequently poor. Cancers include those which have metastasized to the liver from elsewhere, reflecting advanced stage disease where cure is rarely possible. Similarly, primary liver cancer frequently complicates chronic liver disease, which further limits therapeutic options. Despite these dismal facts, there are signs that change is imminent. Not only have imaging modalities and surgical techniques improved, but preventive strategies and medical therapies show promise.

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  • Advances in our understanding of the molecular principles underlining both health and disease has revealed the existence of many regulatory polypeptides of significant medical potential. The fact that such polypeptides are produced naturally within the body only in minute quantities initially precluded their large-scale medical application. The development in the 1970s of the twin techniques of genetic engineering and hybridoma technology marked the birth of the modern biotech era.

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  • Acne — it’s not exactly a subject that you like to talk about every day. At social events, you do your best to conceal it under makeup (although if you’re a man, makeup is usually not a realistic option). For kids, acne is more than just a stage of adolescence — it’s the pits! In fact, acne can be a problem for people of any age. Even newborns and seniors can develop acne! Americans currently spend more than $4 billion a year on skin treatments, nearly $100 million of which goes toward nonprescription acne medications alone.

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  • The aim of this chapter is to summarize and evaluate the different mechanisms and catabolic mediators involved in cancer cachexia and ageing sarcopenia since they may represent targets for future promising clinical investigations. Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by a marked weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. In fact, many patients who die with advanced cancer suffer from cachexia. The degree of cachexia is inversely correlated with the survival time of the patient and it always implies a poor prognosis.

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  • A wealth of neurological textbooks, journals, and papers are available today. The student of clinical neuroscience is therefore faced with a large number of unrelated facts that can be very difficult to remember and apply. In neurology, one of the most difficult tasks is knowing how to reach the correct diagnosis by differentiating it from the other possibilities, so that the patient can receive the appropriate treatment for the disease concerned.

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  • Acute-care clinicians are well aware of the alphabetical “ABC” (airway, breathing, circulation) directive of resuscitation. This term has been widely disseminated through programs such as Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS). In fact, both courses have contributed significantly to improving awareness of resuscitation priorities required in managing patients rendered critically ill from trauma or cardiac events.

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  • The benefit-to-risk ratio of blood products needs constant evaluation. Blood products, as therapeutic agents, have had the test of time but lack the evidence we expect from other medicinals. Blood, an organ, is used as a pharmaceutical agent by the medical profession, due to the achievements in collection, processing, banking, and distribution. The fact that the most common risk of blood transfusion isblood delivery error supports the notion that blood is handled as a pharmaceutical agent.

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  • Few of us are ever going to become professional researchers, but all of us will find times when research is indispensable to our lives. Whether you're looking for information about a car's safety record, a community's schools, or a company's stock, you'll need to know how to gather, sort, and track the facts and opinions available to you.

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  • The global cost of communicable diseases is expected to rise. SARS has put the world on alert. We have now Avian Flu on the watch. Recognizing the global nature of threats posed by new and re-emerging infectious diseases and the fact that many recent occurrences originated in the Asia Pacific regions, there has been an increased interest in learning and knowing about disease surveillance and monitoring progresses made in these regions. Such knowledge and awareness is necessary to reduce conflict, discomfort, tension and uneasiness in future negotiations and global cooperation....

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  • Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued expansion and diversification becoming one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Many new destinations have emerged alongside the traditional ones of Europe and North America. In the next years an increase of travelling is expected, and the number of related infections will also be higher (http://www.unwto.org/facts/menu.html). Rickettsioses are an important chapter in the field of travel medicine.

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  • The research recommends that marketers think about dollars instead of percentages. If restaurants hold onto their mark- ups, but experience a 50% drop in volume, they are worse off than if they were to drop prices and keep a strong volume. The vast majority of restaurants have gotten away from a straight three-time markup across an entire list. Additionally, restaurants need to recognize the fact that certain staples, such as Opus One or Dom Perignon, act as barometers diners generally know how much the wine costs, and look to these selections as benchmarks on list pricing.

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  • In Latin America, the rates of institutionalization of older people range from 1% to 4%. Institutional care is no longer considered unacceptable for an older person but is seen as an alternative for families. The government-sponsored asilos, large institutions resembling the early English workhouses, have been converted into smaller facilities with professional staff from many disciplines. Other homes are operated by religious communities of immigrant origin.

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  • Given its speed, lower costs and powerful targeting abilities, the online world represents a highly cost-effective media platform for reaching customers and potential customers. Marketers are taking advantage of these opportunities to expand their business, devoting a steadily growing portion of their budgets to online marketing initiatives. In a survey1 of marketing executives, eMarketer finds that while offline media spends, including newspapers, magazines, television and radio, steadily decrease, Internet marketing spends are increasing 20 to 30 percent each year.

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  • The discovery of the hormone insulin by Frederick Banting and colleagues in the early 1920’s is one of the greatest medical breakthroughs and has saved millions of lives over the years. The significance of the discovery is underscored by the fact that type 1 diabetics still have an absolute requirement for daily injections of insulin to live. Clearly, today’s insulin treatments have attained levels of sophistication that have greatly improved clinical out‐ come ...

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  • All of us like to think that our actions and reactions are a result of logical thought processes, but the fact is that suggestion influences our thinking a great deal more than logic. Consciously or unconsciously, our feelings about almost everything are largely molded by ready-made opinions and attitudes fostered by our mass methods of communication. We cannot buy a bar of soap or a filtered cigarette without paying tribute to the impact of suggestion. Right or wrong, most of us place more confidence in what "they" say than we do in our own powers of reason.

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  • The agency believes that NCAP has helped make significant safety improvements by providing consumers with independent information that they can use in their purchasing decisions. This information has helped drive consumer demand for safety and manufacturers have responded by building vehicles that exceed Federal motor vehicle safety standards, thereby contributing to NHTSA’s mission of reducing death and injuries from motor vehicle crashes.

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  • Recent developments/efforts to understand aspects of the brain function at the subneural level are discussed. MicroTubules (MTs), protein polymers constructing the cytoskeleton, participate in a wide variety of dynamical processes in the cell. Of special interest to us is the MTs participation in bioinformation processes such as learning and memory, by possessing a well-known binary error-correcting code [K1(13, 26, 5)] with 64 words. In fact, MTs and DNA/RNA are unique cell structures that possess a code system.

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  • Helicobacter pylori, which persistently colonizes the stomachs of ~50% of the world's human population, is the main risk factor for peptic ulceration (Chap. 287) as well as for gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (Chap. 87). Treatment for H. pylori has revolutionized the management of peptic ulcer disease, providing a permanent cure in many cases. The prevention of H. pylori colonization could potentially represent primary prevention of gastric malignancy and peptic ulceration.

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  • Early attempts to look at the link between air pollution and wildlife focused mainly on the so- called "charismatic megafauna", ie on large and "colourful" species of animals. In fact, the most widely affected species - in terms of both number of species suffering damage from air pollution and also sensitivity of individual species to pollution - are amongst the lower life forms. In particular, lichens, bryophytes, fungi, and soft-bodied aquatic invertebrates are likely to be at risk.

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