Equally weighted

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  • Low birth weight, malnourished and non-breastfed children and those living in overcrowded conditions are at higher risk of acquiring pneumonia. These children are also at a higher risk of death from pneumonia. Prevention is key, including early recognition and detection, immunization (measles, HIB and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines), adequate nutrition and exclusive breastfeeding. Infants of less than six months of age, who are not breastfed, have a risk of dying from pneumonia five times greater than infants who are exclusively breastfed for the first six months.

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  • One curious minor dilemma which the team faced, in trying to produce a book giving equal weight to American and Brilish English, was in the choice of spelling standard: should we adopt British or American spelling conventions? Either choice would appear to contravene the ideal of an objectively international view of the English language.

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  • Usually any requirement that the contractor should shoulder all or most risks arises because the employer prefers to have a fixed financial commit- ment, or because he has only a limited allocation of funds which he has no authority to exceed. Some overseas governments will not authorize any expenditure above the tendered sum. This fixing of the price and placing all or most of the risks on the contractor can be expected to lead to generally high prices.

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  • Analyzing monthly return data on more than 2500 unique U.S. equity funds over the period 1984–2003, we show that the average return gap is close to zero. In particular, the equally weighted return gap for all mutual funds in our sample equals 1.1 basis points per month, while the value- weighted return gap equals −1.0 basis points per month. These results indicate that the magnitude of unobserved actions is relatively small in the aggregate. Thus, fund managers’ trades in the aggregate create sufficient value to offset trading costs and other hidden costs of fund management.

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  • It would be possible to create a score for each respondent from the factor analysis, and this approach is widely considered to be good practice when scoring complex data 13 . However, there is also a strong argument for giving each component of financial knowledge equal weighting, as each has benefits for individuals, and each has been identified as important by international experts.

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  • Snow-balling technique was used to find further examples in the application of financing mechanisms, contact persons, as well as for finding additional information. Furthermore, also the second questionnaire (see Annex 24) was used as an additional information source. The interviews used a common interview guide which was adapted according to the type of actors interviewed and according to the type of information missing for the description of the single cases.

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  • Roe v. Wade stands as a milestone to women’s freedom and equality, and one of its most fundamental tenets is that a woman’s health must always be protected. Yet 39 years after the Supreme Court recognized the right to choose and the vital importance of women’s health, 1 attacks on women’s privacy, and on health protections in particular, continue. Time after time, anti-choice lawmakers vote down proposed health exceptions to abortion restrictions, 2 and prominent anti-choice leaders openly state their opposition to protecting women’s health.

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  • It would add up to a major record of EU action before the June 2014 European Parliament elections. In 2013 the Commission will devote much effort to implementation as an immediate way of delivering on the benefits of EU action.

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  • Originally, several provisions under Dodd-Frank con- cerning swaps would have taken effect on July 16, 2011, but since such provisions required the SEC and CFTC to implement fi nal rules, that date was not achievable. 6 The effective date of most provisions was consequently delayed until December 31, 2011 or until new rules be- come effective, if earlier. 7 Importantly, any provision that references “swap,” “security-based swap,” “swap dealer,” and “major swap participant” is delayed because these defi nitions have not yet been fi nalized.

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  • Growing linkages between MFIs and the banking system in Africa appear to be mutually beneficial. MFIs rely on banks for a variety of services, including deposit facilities, liquidity management services, and in some cases, emergency credit lines to cover cash shortfalls. For banks, the benefits are the opportunity to expand their client base through MFIs, and to expand their operations through the network of MFIs (including in the rural sector).

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  • Conceptually, we base our model mainly on the setups of Hannan (2006) and Brewer and Jackson (2006). In contrast to Hannan (2006), we use an index of fees instead of individual fees as the dependent variable and we modify the setup to control for greater heterogeneity in the data. Unlike Brewer and Jackson (2006), 6 the index composition is based on the actual distribution of services purchased by a representative bank client instead of imposing equal weights.

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  • In 29 states and the District of Columbia, renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require that utilities or load-serving entities include a certain percentage of renewable energy within their power generation mix; the percentages required and eligibility requirements vary among the states. Eligible renewable energy may either be purchased by load-serving entities to meet their RPS requirements, or may be bought by consumers or businesses wanting to buy renewable energy on a voluntary basis.

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  • A sole-source contract is appropriate if your project is very small, if you already have experience in finding and working with conservation professionals, or if the project is so complex that bid specifications could be inconclusive. Be aware, however, that this option may not automatically be available when working with a government agency’s contracting office; you may have to seek an exception. Always make the case against a sealed bid process, in which cost is the sole determining factor.

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  • In traditional SAS programs, PROCS are called as part of a workflow that usually includes SAS DATA steps along with PROC steps, which invoke SAS procedures. For example, a very basic SAS program includes a DATA step that creates the SAS data set from raw data files and a PROC step that invokes an appropriate SAS procedure to process the SAS data set. A PROC invocation typically takes one or more tables as input and produces a new table as output. Various programming options and control statements can also be specified on the PROC invocation. These dictate how the PROC...

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  • There are a lot of writing guides available which provide advice on the structure of proposed articles. One example is the commonly known IMRAD (Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion) structure (see e.g., Swales, 1990, Sharp, 2002; Freeman, 2000). The terminology may differ somewhat, as for example in the IMRAD scheme the literature review is integrated into the Introduction section, however, the above list presents the literature review separately. Also, discussion, which D stands for in IMRAD, is the same as conclusions in the above list.

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  • Some health disparities are unavoidable, such as health problems that are related to a person’s genetic structure. However, most health disparities are potentially avoidable, especially when they are related to factors such as living in low-income neighborhoods or having unequal access to medical care. Reducing, if not eliminating, health disparities is an important goal for a number of reasons. Childhood is a time of enormous physical, social and emotional growth.

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  • In November 1999, the Department of Dental Surgery at Chubu National Hospital, National Institute of Longevity Science (Now: National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontologyʣ, established the first oral care outpatient clinic in the nation. We have instructed many people in methods of systematic oral care, and the service has earned a good reputation.

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  • The design of an aquifer remediation operation is merely a case of practical experience today. The contaminant is flushed out of the soil by means of a system of injection and recovery wells. The time needed and the amount of water that has to be flushed through the soil to reach a certain required concentration are both important. The amount of water is expressed in terms of the so-called flush factor, which is equal to the ratio of the volume of this water and the volume of the pores in the soil to be flushed. The time needed and the...

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  • Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world’s most important infectious causes of morbidity and mortality among adults. An estimated one-third of the world’s population is infected with TB. In 2010, there were 8.8 million new, and 12.0 million prevalent cases of TB; 1.1 million deaths occurred among HIV-uninfected people and an additional 0.35 million deaths among HIV-infected people (WHO 2011a). Of the total new TB cases, an estimated 12% to 14% occurred among people living with HIV.

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  • Both human activities and natural activities can change the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water, and will have specific ramifications for human and ecosystem health. Water quality is affected by changes in nutrients, sedimentation, temperature, pH, heavy metals, non-metallic toxins, persistent organics and pesticides, and biological factors, among many other factors (Carr and Neary 2008). Following are brief discussions of these major contaminants.

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