Equilibrium properties

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  • Tham khảo sách 'understanding non-equilibrium thermodynamics springer 2008 .g. lebon', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The Mexican legal system is a mixture of U.S. constitutional theory within a civil law system. Mexico’s legal framework concerning real property includes the Federal Constitution, Federal Civil Code, state civil codes, municipal laws and ordinances. Additionally, the Foreign Investment Law and Foreign Investment Law Regulations regulate foreign investment. In Mexico, real property is classified as either public, private or communal, the nature of which will affect the property’s use and potential alienation.

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  • The new edition of Principles of Electrochemistry has been considerably extended by a number of new sections, particularly dealing with 'electrochemical material science' (ion and electron conducting polymers, chemically modified electrodes), photoelectrochemistry, stochastic processes, new aspects of ion transfer across biological membranes, biosensors, etc. In view of this extension of the book we asked Dr Ladislav Kavan (the author of the section on non-electrochemical methods in the first edition) to contribute as a co-author discussing many of these topics.

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  • The aim of the study was to investigate the crystallization kinetics and solidification behaviour of Fe60Co8Mo5Zr10W2B15 bulk glass forming alloy. The solidification behaviour in near-equilibrium and non-equilibrium cooling conditions was studied. The eutectic and peritectic reactions were found to exist in the solidification sequence of the alloy. The bulk metallic glass formation was achieved by using two methods: quenching from the liquid state and quenching from the semi-state.

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  • Harrison, J.A. et al. “Atomic-Scale Simulation of Tribological and Related...” Handbook of Micro/Nanotribology. Ed. Bharat Bhushan Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999 Atomic-Scale Simulation of Tribological and Related Phenomena Judith A. Harrison, Steven J. Stuart, and Donald W. Brenner 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Molecular Dynamics Simulations Interatomic Potentials • Thermodynamic Ensemble • Temperature Regulation 11 11.

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  • What investors must realise is that despite their intangible nature, the most valuable aspects of real estate assets are those that provide the best possible human outcomes into the future. These benefits build demand and result in higher and more sustained returns This alone elevates the importance of social sustainability in the real estate mix, and is bringing a particular focus to construction and management standards as a major factor in improving the worth of asset holdings.

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  • Lipases find promising applications in organic chemical processing, detergent formula- tions, synthesis of biosurfactants, the oleochemical industry, the dairy industry, the agro- chemical industry, paper manufacture, nutrition, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical processing. Development of lipase-based technologies for the synthesis of novel compounds is rapidly expanding the uses of these enzymes (Liese et al., 2000). One limiting factor is a shortage of lipases having the specific required processing characteristics.

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  • What is computational physics? Here, we take it to mean techniques for simulating continuous physical systems on computers. Since mathematical physics expresses these systems as partial differential equations, an equivalent statement is that computational physics involves solving systems of partial differential equations on a computer. This book is meant to provide an introduction to computational physics to students in plasma physics and related disciplines. We present most of the basic concepts needed for numerical solution of partial differential equations.

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  • One reason why the study of thermodynamics is so valuable to students of chemistry and chemical engineering is that it is a theory which can be developed in its entirety, without gaps in the argument, on the basis of only a moderate knowledge of mathematics. It is therefore a self-contained logical structure, and much benefit--and incidentally much pleasure-may be obtained from its study. Another reason is that it is one of the few branches of physics or chemistry which is largely independent of any assumptions concerning the nature of the fundamental particles.

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  • Several particularmodels have been constructed to develop the new perspective.We are still nowhere near to having an overarching model, of the kind economists are used to in the theory of general competitive equilibrium. 19 Some models have as their ingredients large inequalities in land ownership in poor countries and the non-convexities that prevail at the level of the individual person in transforming nutrition intake into nutritional status and, thereby, labour productivity (Dasgupta and Ray, 1986, 1987; Dasgupta, 1993, 1997b).

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  • In 1998, additional depreciation costs relating to write-downs of property, plant and equipment of NLG 148 million resulting from the recognition of asset impairment were reported in the separate line item restructuring charges (1997: NLG 145 million, 1996: NLG 144 million). Amortization of goodwill relating to unconsolidated companies amounting to NLG 2 million (1997: NLG 18 million, 1996: NLG 14 million) was not included in costs of sales but was charged against results relating to unconsolidated companies.

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  • The 3¢-processing of viral DNA extremities is the first step in the integra-tion process catalysed by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase (IN). This reaction is relatively inefficient and processed DNAs are usually detectedin vitro under conditions of excess enzyme. Despite such experi-mental conditions, steady-state Michaelis–Menten formalism is often applied to calculate characteristic equilibrium⁄kinetic constants of IN.

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  • The model used–an extension of the log-linear dividend-price ratio model of Campbell and Shiller (1988, 1989)–facilitates a straightforward test of these alternatives in a linear regression with the log price-earnings ratio as dependent variable. The regression results suggest that the correlation between the price-earnings ratio and expected inflation is the result of both effects; that is, an increase in expected inflation reduces equity prices because it is associated with both lower expected real earnings growth and higher required real returns.

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  • Actin–tropomyosin–troponin has three structural states, but the functional properties of regulation can be explained with models having two func-tional states. As a step towards assigning functional properties to all the structural states, we examined fluorescent probes that monitor changes in troponin and tropomyosin.

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  • Macrophages at an inflammatory site release massive amounts of proteolytic enzymes, including lysosomal cys-teine proteases, which colocalizewith their circulating, tight-binding inhibitors (cystatins, kininogens), so modifying the protease/antiprotease equilibrium in favor of enhanced proteolysis. We have explored the ability of human cath-epsins B, KandL to participate in the production of kinins, using kininogens and synthetic peptides that mimic the insertion sites of bradykinin on human kininogens....

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  • VOl. 1 CALPHAD by N. Saunders and A. P. Miodownik VOl. 2 Non-Equilibrium Processing of Materials edited by C. Suryanarayana VOl. 3 Wettability at High Temperatures by N. Eustathopoulos, M. G . Nicholas and B. Drevet VOl. 4 Structural Biological Materials edited by M. Elices VOl. 5 The Coming of Materials Science by R. W. Cahn Vol. 6 Multinuclear Solid State NMR of Inorganic Materials by K. J. D. Mackenzie and M. E. Smith Vol. 7 Underneath the Bragg Peaks: Structural Analysis of Complex Materials by T. Egami and S . L. J. Billinge Vol. 8 Thermally Activated Mechanisms in...

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  • Fourth, the model provides a rational to the empirical …nding that volatility factors are priced in the cross section of stock returns. In the current model, stock return volatility factors are driven by systematic risk factors: sentiment and solvency risks. These factors, which drive volatility factors, are shown to be priced across di¤erent stocks in an equilibrium consumption CAPM.

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  • NMR and visible spectroscopy coupled to redox measurements were used to determine the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the four haems in cytochrome c3 under conditions in which the protein was bound to lig-ands, the small anion phosphate and the protein rubredoxin with the iron in the active site replaced by zinc.

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  • Substrate properties of xanthine (Xan) and xanthosine (Xao) for purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNP) of mammalian origin have been reported previously, but only at a single arbitrarily selected pH and with no kinetic con-stants. Additionally, studies have not taken into account the fact that, at physiological pH, Xao (pKa¼5.7) is a mono-anion, while Xan (pKa¼7.7) is an equilibrium mixture of the neutral and monoanionic forms.

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  • Soils are aggregates of mineral particles, and together with air and/or water in the void spaces, they form three-phase systems. A large portion of the earth’s surface is covered by soils, and they are widely used as construction and foundation materials. Soil mechanics is the branch of engineering that deals with the engineering properties of soils and their behavior under stress.

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