Equity returns

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  • Tham khảo sách 'credit suisse global investment returns yearbook 2012', tài chính - ngân hàng, đầu tư bất động sản phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • This chapter discusses the various forms of return encountered in investment management. Among the return types discussed are required returns, which will be used later in the text for equity valuation. The required return is what the investor expects to earn on an investment, given the investment’s risk. To determine the required return, we will use several different models, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).

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  • Chapter 2 - Security market indices. This lecture is organized as follows. Section 2 defines a security market index and explains how to calculate the price return and total return of an index for a single period and over multiple periods. Section 3 describes how indices are constructed and managed. Section 4 discusses the use of market indices. Sections 5, 6, and 7 discuss various types of indices, and Section 8 concludes and summarizes the reading. Practice problems follow the conclusions and summary.

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  • After studying chapter 15, you should be able to: Explain how a firm creates value, and identify the key sources of value creation; define the overall “cost of capital” of the firm, calculate the costs of the individual components of a firm’s overall cost of capital: cost of debt, cost of preferred stock, and cost of equity;...

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  • Chapter 5 - Portfolio risk and return (Part I). In this chapter, we will explore the process of examining the risk and return characteristics of individual assets, creating all possible portfolios, selecting the most efficient portfolios, and ultimately choosing the optimal portfolio tailored to the individual in question.

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  • Chapter 6 - Portfolio risk and return (Part II). The topics discussed in this chapter are: Portfolio risk and return, optimal risky portfolio and the capital market line (CML), return-generating models and the market model, systematic and non-systematic risk, capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and the security market line (SML), performance measures, arbitrage pricing theory (APT) and factor models.

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  • Có rất nhiều chỉ số để đánh giá về tình hình tài chính của một doanh nghiệp, như chỉ số về tỷ suất lợi nhuận trên doanh thu, chỉ số về tài sản lưu động, chỉ số đầu tư vốn... Nhưng có một chỉ số quan trọng mà lâu nay chưa được nhiều người để ý đến, đó là chỉ số ROE (Return on equity - Chỉ số quay vòng vốn).

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  • Every student of finance or applied economics learns the lessons of Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller. Their landmark paper, published in 1958, laid out the basic underpinnings of modern finance and these two distinguished academics were both subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics. Simply stated, companies create value when they generate returns that exceed their costs. More specifically, the returns of successful companies will exceed the risk-adjusted cost of the capital used to run the business.

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  • In our recent book, Free Cash Flow and Shareholder Yield: New Priorities for the Global Investor (John Wiley & Sons, 2007), we offered a comprehensive introduction to the opportunities and challenges inherent in today’s equity markets. By looking beyond the many obfuscations of traditional generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) accounting, we endeavored to provide the informed investor with the tools necessary to navigate a changing investment landscape.

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  • The term "efficient" firm is widely used in economics. For example, an efficient firm is the one producing at Marginal Cost = Marginal Revenue. However, in finance, an "efficient" firm has no specific meaning. We hear efficient market but not efficient firm. Primarily because of two reasons. First, efficiency or MC=MR is difficult to estimate in finance. Second, so what if the firm is efficient? Why should an investor care? Economic theory never told us anything about what will happen next. Maybe a firm is efficient right now will not be in the future.

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  • The recent credit crisis in the United States ushered in a new era of uncertainty. In some ways it was just another bubble in a long line of fi nancial manias. Like any other bubble, it was born out of an extended period of easy money that fueled prosperity, engendered speculation, and ended in a spectacular crash. In some very important ways, however, the lingering impacts are different than the bubbles of recent memory.

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  • Instruments used to predict future mutual fund returns include the aggregate dividend yield, the default spread, the term spread, and the yield on the three-month T-bill, variables identified by Keim and Stambaugh (1986) and Fama and French (1989) as important in predicting U.S. equity returns. The dividend yield is the total cash dividends on the value- weighted CRSP index over the previous 12 months divided by the current level of the index. The default spread is the yield differential between Moodys BAA-rated and AAA- rated bonds.

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  • We construct optimal portfolios of equity funds by combining historical returns on funds and passive indexes with prior views about asset pricing and skill. By including both benchmark and nonbenchmark indexes, we distinguish pricing-model inaccuracy from managerial skill. Even modest con¯dence in a pricing model helps construct portfolios with high Sharpe ratios. Investing in active mutual funds can be optimal even for investors who believe active managers cannot outperform passive indexes. Optimal portfolios exclude hot-hand funds even for investors who believe momentum is priced.

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  • Individuals can benefit from enhanced peace of mind, less anxiety and less pain – and better health outcomes when waiting times are very long29 – when provided with speedier access to care, as afforded by private health insurance in duplicate PHI markets. There are nonetheless trade-offs with other policy goals, such as equity, which have led policymakers in the Netherlands to make different policy choices.

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  • What can governments do to support and drive these initiatives further? The most important thing is to provide clear and consistent environmental policies which will fix market failures and give institutional investors the confidence to invest in green projects. Without these policies climate finance from the private sector will not be forthcoming. Governments need to ensure that adequate, investment-grade deals at scale come to the market in order to be able to tap the potential pension funds cash.

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  • This magnification of credit risk for preferred stocks occurs essentially because of their payoff structure. If the firm is liquidated at a low value, all other debt holders are paid first and only then are the preferred holders paid. This credit risk is not rewarded with participation in the firm’s upside as it is for common equity holders. Hence, when firm value becomes low, preferred stocks are more acutely exposed to credit risk than common stocks holders.

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  • It is also interesting to note that these studies took a broad, regional approach to water quality problems and acknowledged the role of not just industrial sources, but nonpoint sources as well. In this respect, the work was particularly far-sighted. Unfortunately, the institutions necessary to implement regional approaches did not exist at that time. 13 Current water quality regulation, as exemplified by the TMDL program, is returning to watershed-level, multi-source analysis of water quality impairments.

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  • We employ three different measures of performance: return on equity (ROE) which is defined as earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) divided by book value of shareholders‟ equity; return on sales (ROS), calculated as EBIT divided by total turnover; and Tobin‟s Q. 3 The latter indicator is calculated as the ratio of the firm‟s market capitalization to book value of equity. 4 We analyse the effect of IED using two definitions of variable IEit. First, we employ a dummy variable which takes the value of 1 if at least one non-executive director is also...

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  • Chapter 15 - Required returns and the cost of capital. After studying chapter 15, you should be able to: Explain how a firm creates value, and identify the key sources of value creation; define the overall “cost of capital” of the firm, calculate the costs of the individual components of a firm’s overall cost of capital: cost of debt, cost of preferred stock, and cost of equity;...

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  • You can download this book for free. And you should. Why? Because it explains to you exactly why neither you nor the fund managers you hire to run your money for you ever seem to make the kind of returns studies show the equity market is supposed to offer." Merryn Somerset Webb, Editor-in-Chief, MoneyWeek "The universal reaction after reading this book is going to be, I wish I had read it years ago, and mine was no exception. Being completely detached from the finance industry, and a seasoned researcher trained to sift fact from mantra, gives Pete Comley a unique...

    pdf110p khangoc2395 27-08-2012 22 2   Download

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