Bài giảng "Công nghệ phần mềm: Software Testing - Nguyễn Thị Cẩm Hương" presentation of content: Why should we test, terminologies, functional testing, equivalence class testing, decision table based testing, levels of coverage,... Invite you to reference.
Building on earlier work that integrates different factors in language modeling, we view (i) backing off to a shorter history and (ii) class-based generalization as two complementary mechanisms of using a larger equivalence class for prediction when the default equivalence class is too small for reliable estimation. This view entails that the classes in a language model should be learned from rare events only and should be preferably applied to rare events.
In statistical natural language processing we always face the problem of sparse data. One way to reduce this problem is to group words into equivalence classes which is a standard method in statistical language modeling. In this paper we describe a method to determine bilingual word classes suitable for statistical machine translation. We develop an optimization criterion based on a maximumlikelihood approach and describe a clustering algorithm. We will show that the usage of the bilingual word classes we get can improve statistical machine translation. ...
In statistical language modeling, one technique to reduce the problematic eﬀects of data sparsity is to partition the vocabulary into equivalence classes. In this paper we investigate the eﬀects of applying such a technique to higherorder n-gram models trained on large corpora.
The IRS2092(S) is a Class D audio amplifier driver
with integrated PWM modulator and over current
protection. Combined with two external MOSFETs
and a few external components, the IRS2092(S)
forms a complete Class D amplifier with dual over
current, and shoot-through protection, as well as
UVLO protection for the three bias supplies. The
versatile structure of the analog input section with
an error amplifier and a PWM comparator has the
flexibility of implementing different types of PWM
Loss-less current sensing utilizes RDS(on) of the
4.1. PHÂN CHIA LỚP TƯƠNG ĐƯƠNG
Equivalence partitioning (equivalence class) ) là quá trình làm
giảm số lượng các test case nhưng vẫn đảm bảo đạt được
hiệu quả tương đương như khi kiểm thử với số lượng các test
Functional testing is a type of black box testing that bases its test cases on the specifications of the software component under test. Functions are tested by feeding them input and examining the output, and internal program structure is rarely considered (not like in white-box testing).
Functional testing differs from system testing in that functional testing "verif[ies] a program by checking it against ... design document(s) or specification(s)", while system testing "validate[s] a program by checking it against the published user or system requirements"...
Abstract. The work reported in this article continues investigations
in a theoretical framework for Concept Theories based on mathematical
logic. The general idea is that the intension of a concept is defined
by some equivalence class of theories, whereas the extension is given
by the models of the theory. The fact that extensions depend on structures
that are necessary to interpret the formulae of the logic, already
provides an argument to put more emphasis on the intension.
We prove that a type II1 factor M can have at most one Cartan subalgebra A satisfying a combination of rigidity and compact approximation properties. We use this result to show that within the class HT of factors M having such Cartan subalgebras A ⊂ M , the Betti numbers of the standard equivalence relation associated with A ⊂ M ([G2]), are in fact isomorphism invariants for HT the factors M , βn (M ), n ≥ 0. The class HT is closed under ampliﬁcations HT HT and tensor products,
We establish new results and introduce new methods in the theory of measurable orbit equivalence, using bounded cohomology of group representations. Our rigidity statements hold for a wide (uncountable) class of groups arising from negative curvature geometry.
We show that every smooth toric variety (and many other algebraic spaces as well) can be realized as a moduli space for smooth, projective, polarized varieties. Some of these are not quasi-projective. This contradicts a recent paper (Quasi-projectivity of moduli spaces of polarized varieties, Ann. of Math. 159 (2004) 597–639.). A polarized variety is a pair (X, H) consisting of a smooth projective variety X and a linear equivalence class of ample divisors H on X. For simplicity, we look at the case when X is smooth, numerical and linear equivalence coincide for divisors on X, H is very...
We exhibit a counterexample to Elliott’s classiﬁcation conjecture for simple, separable, and nuclear C∗ -algebras whose construction is elementary, and demonstrate the necessity of extremely ﬁne invariants in distinguishing both approximate unitary equivalence classes of automorphisms of such algebras and isomorphism classes of the algebras themselves.
The Fund’s exposure to liquidity risk is concentrated in
the daily cash redemptions of shares. The Fund primarily
invests in securities that are traded in active markets
and can be readily disposed. In addition, the Fund
retains sufficient cash and cash equivalent positions
to maintain liquidity. The Fund may, from time to
time, enter into over-the-counter derivative contracts
or invest in unlisted securities, which are not traded
in an organized market and may be illiquid.
MULTIPLICITY RESULTS FOR A CLASS OF ASYMMETRIC WEAKLY COUPLED SYSTEMS OF SECOND-ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
FRANCESCA DALBONO AND P. J. MCKENNA Received 1 November 2004
We prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions to a two-point boundary value problem associated to a weakly coupled system of asymmetric second-order equations. Applying a classical change of variables, we transform the initial problem into an equivalent problem whose solutions can be characterized by their nodal properties.
Utility green pricing sales continue to exhibit some growth, but growth has slowed in the past
two years, in particular. Collectively, utilities in regulated electricity markets sold about 4.8
billion kWh of green power to customers in 2008 (Table 9). Green pricing program sales to all
customer classes grew by 11% in 2008, compared to rates ranging from 26% to 56% in recent
years (Table 9 and Figure 4). The loss of the FPL program had a noticeable impact on sales.
Without the termination of the FPL program, utility green pricing program sales would have
grown at a rate of...
Putting these additional factors together would increase the total cost of BAU climate
change to the equivalent of around a 20% reduction in consumption per head, now
and into the future.
In summary, analyses that take into account the full ranges of both impacts and
possible outcomes - that is, that employ the basic economics of risk - suggest that
BAU climate change will reduce welfare by an amount equivalent to a reduction in
consumption per head of between 5 and 20%. Taking account of the increasing
scientific evidence of greater risks, of aversion to the...
Interaction of lexical and derivational semantics---for example substitution and lambda conversion--- is typically a part of the on-line interpretation process. Proof-nets are to categorial grammar what phrase markers are to phrase structure grammar: unique graphical structures underlying equivalence classes of sequential syntactic derivations; but the role of proof-nets is deeper since they integrate also semantics.
The turn of the millennium has been described as the dawn of a new scientific
revolution, which will have as great an impact on society as the industrial and
computer revolutions before. This revolution was heralded by a large-scale
DNA sequencing effort in July 1995, when the entire 1.8 million base pairs
of the genome of the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae was published – the
first of a free-living organism. Since then, the amount of DNA sequence data
in publicly accessible data bases has been growing exponentially, including a
working draft of the complete 3.
Under categorial grammars that have powerful rules like composition, a simple n-word sentence can have exponentially many parses. Generating all parses is inefficient and obscures whatever true semantic ambiguities are in the input. This paper addresses the problem for a fairly general form of Combinatory Categorial Grammar, by means of an efficient, correct, and easy to implement normal-form parsing technique.
Essentials of Investments: Chapter 2 - Financial Markets and Instruments presents Major Classes of Financial Assets or Securities, Markets and Instruments, Money Market Instrument Yields, Bank Discount Rate, Bond Equivalent Yield.