Equivalence of categories

One of the major advances of science in the 20th century was the discovery of a mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics by Heisenberg in 1925 [94].1 From a mathematical point of view, this transition from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics amounts to, among other things, passing from the commutative algebra of classical observables to the noncommutative algebra of quantum mechanical observables. To understand this better we recall that in classical mechanics an observable of a system (e.g. energy, position, momentum, etc.
239p thienbinh1311 13122012 23 3 Download

This paper describes a method for recognizing coherence relations between clauses which are linked by te in Japanese   a translational equivalent of English and. We consider that the coherence relations are categories each of which has a prototype structure as well as the relationships among them. By utilizing this organization of the relations, we can infer an appropriate relation from the semantic structures of the clauses between which that relation holds. We carried out an experiment and obtained the correct recognition ratio of 82% for the 280 sentences. ...
7p bunrieu_1 18042013 16 2 Download

[Mechanical Translation, vol.3, no.3, December 1956; pp. 8188] † M. A. K. Halliday, Cambridge Language Research Unit, Cambridge, England The grammar and lexis of a language exhibit a high degree of internal determination, affecting all utterances whether or not these are translated from another language.
8p nghetay_1 06042013 22 1 Download

After illustrating the benefits of this approach with several examples, we describe the algorithm for compiling zero morphemes into unary rules, which allows us to use zero morphemes more efficiently in natural language processing. 1 Then, we discuss the question of equivalence of a grammar with these unary rules to the original grammar. Lastly, we compare our approach to zero morphemes with possible alternatives. 1.
6p bungio_1 03052013 20 1 Download

The purpose of this paper is to prove that the stable homotopy category of algebraic topology is ‘rigid’ in the sense that it admits essentially only one model: Rigidity Theorem. Let C be a stable model category. If the homotopy category of C and the homotopy category of spectra are equivalent as triangulated categories, then there exists a Quillen equivalence between C and the model category of spectra. Our reference model is the category of spectra in the sense of Bousﬁeld and Friedlander [BF, §2] with the stable model structure. The point of the rigidity theorem is that its...
28p noel_noel 17012013 22 5 Download

We deﬁne and study sl2 categoriﬁcations on abelian categories. We show in particular that there is a selfderived (even homotopy) equivalence categorifying the adjoint action of the simple reﬂection. We construct categoriﬁcations for blocks of symmetric groups and deduce that two blocks are splendidly Rickard equivalent whenever they have isomorphic defect groups and we show that this implies Brou´’s abelian defect group conjecture for symmetric groups. e We give similar results for general linear groups over ﬁnite ﬁelds. ...
55p dontetvui 17012013 26 5 Download

The NCRP has long recognized the need for a clear assessment of the magnitude of doses from various sources of radiation to which the population of the U.S. is exposed. In anticipation of the need to gather data for input into this process, five assessment committees, each addressing a different source category, were established. NCRP reports assessing exposures from natural background, consumer products, nuclear power generation, and diagnostic medical radiation have been published (NCRP, 1987a,b,c,d, NCRP, 1989)....
112p camchuong_1 04122012 24 3 Download

Interaction of lexical and derivational semanticsfor example substitution and lambda conversion is typically a part of the online interpretation process. Proofnets are to categorial grammar what phrase markers are to phrase structure grammar: unique graphical structures underlying equivalence classes of sequential syntactic derivations; but the role of proofnets is deeper since they integrate also semantics.
10p bunthai_1 06052013 18 2 Download

Under categorial grammars that have powerful rules like composition, a simple nword sentence can have exponentially many parses. Generating all parses is inefficient and obscures whatever true semantic ambiguities are in the input. This paper addresses the problem for a fairly general form of Combinatory Categorial Grammar, by means of an efficient, correct, and easy to implement normalform parsing technique.
8p bunmoc_1 20042013 22 1 Download

Steedman (1985, 1987) and others have proposed that Categorial Grammar, a theory of syntax in which grammatical categories are viewed as functions, be augmented with operators such as functional composition and type raising in order to analyze • noncanonical" syntactic constructions such as wh extraction and node raising. A consequence of these augmentations is an explosion of semantically equivalent derivations admitted by the grammar. The present work proposes a method for circumventing this spurious ambiguity problem.
8p bungio_1 03052013 13 1 Download

There has recendy been a revival of interest in Categorial Grammars (CG) among computational linguists. The various versions noted below which extend pure C G by including operations such as functional composition have been claimed to offer simple and uniform accounts of a wide range of natural language (NL) constructions involving bounded and unbounded "movement" and coordination "reduction" in a number of languages. Such grammars have obvious advantages for computational applications, provided that they can be parsed efficiently.
8p bungio_1 03052013 22 1 Download

This paper shows that a class of Combinatory Categorial Grammars (CCGs) augmented with a linguisticallymotivated form of type raising involving variables is weakly equivalent to the standard CCGs not involving variables. The proof is based on the idea that any instance of such a grammar can be simulated by a standard CCG.
3p bunthai_1 06052013 13 1 Download

Brian's Book Barn will concentrate its efforts on the buyers of "Pleasure" category books as discussed earlier. The educational category is not a target market as area schools order their textbooks and reading material through the Ministry of Education in Victoria. Other educational books are also available through satellite campuses of Northern Lights College and the University of Northern British Columbia. In the professional category, there is simply not enough demand in the area to stock these kinds of titles.
5p mebachano 01022013 20 2 Download

The theory of Mackey functors has been developed during the last 25 years in a series of papers by various authors (J.a. Green [8], a. Dress [5], T. Yoshida [17], J. Th~venaz and P. Webb [13],[15],[14], G. Lewis [6]). It is an attempt to give a single framework for the different theories of representations of a finite group and its subgroups. The notion of Mackey functor for a group G can be essentially approached from three points of view: the first one ([8]), which I call "naive", relics on the poset of subgroups of G.
342p hotmoingay 03012013 19 1 Download

Chapter 5  Measurement. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Understand that measurement is a process, explain the principle that numbers have no inherent meaning until the researcher assigns or imposes meaning, develop categories for nominal data that are mutually exclusive, exhaustive, and equivalent,...
15p luimotbuoc_4 11112016 3 1 Download