In the two parts of this paper we prove that the Reidemeister torsion invariants determine topological equivalence of G-representations, for G a ﬁnite cyclic group. 1. Introduction Let G be a ﬁnite group and V , V ﬁnite dimensional real orthogonal representations of G. Then V is said to be topologically equivalent to V (denoted V ∼t V ) if there exists a homeomorphism h : V → V which is G-equivariant. If V , V are topologically equivalent, but not linearly isomorphic, then such a homeomorphism is called a nonlinear similarity. ...
Many multilingual NLP applications need to translate words between different languages, but cannot afford the computational expense of inducing or applying a full translation model. For these applications, we have designed a fast algorithm for estimating a partial translation model, which accounts for translational equivalence only at the word level . The model's precision/recall trade-off can be directly controlled via one threshold parameter. This feature makes the model more suitable for applications that are not fully statistical.
Although they can be topologically different, two distinct transducers may actually recognize the same rational relation. Being able to test the equivalence of transducers allows to implement such operations as incremental minimization and iterative composition.
To give appropriate translation equivalents for target words is one of the most fundamental problems in machine translation systrms. Especially, when the MT systems handle languages that have completely different structures like Japanese and European languages as source and target languages. In this report, we discuss about the data strucutre that enables appropriate selections of translation equivalents for verbs in the target language. This structure is based on the concepts strucutre with associated information relating source and target languages.
We address a core aspect of the multilingual content synchronization task: the identiﬁcation of novel, more informative or semantically equivalent pieces of information in two documents about the same topic. This can be seen as an application-oriented variant of textual entailment recognition where: i) T and H are in different languages, and ii) entailment relations between T and H have to be checked in both directions.
This paper presents a new approach based on Equivalent Pseudowords (EPs) to tackle Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) in Chinese language. EPs are particular artificial ambiguous words, which can be used to realize unsupervised WSD. A Bayesian classifier is implemented to test the efficacy of the EP solution on Senseval-3 Chinese test set. The performance is better than state-of-the-art results with an average F-measure of 0.80. The experiment verifies the value of EP for unsupervised WSD.
This paper describes a study of the patterns of translational equivalence exhibited by a variety of bitexts. The study found that the complexity of these patterns in every bitext was higher than suggested in the literature. These ﬁndings shed new light on why “syntactic” constraints have not helped to improve statistical translation models, including ﬁnitestate phrase-based models, tree-to-string models, and tree-to-tree models.
It is a tacit assumption of m u c h linguistic inquiry that all distinct derivations of a string should assign distinct meanings. But despite the tidiness of such derivational uniqueness, there seems to be no a priori reason to assume that a g r a m m a r must have this property. If a grammar exhibits derivational equivalence, whereby distinct derivations of a string assign the same meanings, naive exhaustive search for all derivations will be redundant, and quite possibly intractable. In this paper we show how notions of derivation-reduction and normal form can be used to...
In the late 1970s a new academic discipline was born: Translation Studies. We could not read literature in translation, it was argued, without asking ourselves if linguistics and cultural phenomena really were ‘translatable’ and exploring in some depth the concept of ‘equivalence’. When Susan Bassnett’s Translation Studies appeared in the New Accents series, it quickly became the one introduction every student and interested reader had to own.
The 8000 Most Useful English Words and Phrases with Korean Equivalents in Both Roman & Korean Letters, Especially recommended for the traveler and student, the Concise English-Korean Dictionary offers the most commonly spoken English words and phrases and their Korean equivalents.
Abstract: The purpose of this white paper is to present discussion and findings that conclude
that Cisco MPLS-based VPNs are as secure as their layer 2 counterparts such as Frame-
Relay and ATM. This document details a series of tests were carried out on a Cisco router test
bed validating that MPLS based VPNs (MPLS-VPN) provide the same security as Frame-Relay
ATM and Frame-Relay have a reputation in the industry as being secure foundations for
enterprise connectivity. Essential items that make ATM and Frame-Relay a secure network
were considered and tested on an MPLS-VPN.
This addition to the new edition of the book should be of special help to users
searching for British equivalents of particular American words and phrases. The
American equivalents given in the main, A–Z section of the book are listed alpha-
betically in the Index, together with the equivalent Briticisms, which the reader
will find treated in full in the main section.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article On Equivalence of Some Iterations Convergence for Quasi-Contraction Maps in Convex Metric Spaces
We establish new results and introduce new methods in the theory of measurable orbit equivalence, using bounded cohomology of group representations. Our rigidity statements hold for a wide (uncountable) class of groups arising from negative curvature geometry.
We deﬁne and study sl2 -categoriﬁcations on abelian categories. We show in particular that there is a self-derived (even homotopy) equivalence categorifying the adjoint action of the simple reﬂection. We construct categoriﬁcations for blocks of symmetric groups and deduce that two blocks are splendidly Rickard equivalent whenever they have isomorphic defect groups and we show that this implies Brou´’s abelian defect group conjecture for symmetric groups. e We give similar results for general linear groups over ﬁnite ﬁelds. ...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Radiation Oncology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for melanoma and renal cell carcinoma: impact of single fraction equivalent dose on local control...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về y học đề tài: Do changes in pulse oximeter oxygen saturation predict equivalent changes in arterial oxygen saturation?
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Equivalent Extensions to Caristi-Kirk’s Fixed Point Theorem, Ekeland’s Variational Principle, and Takahashi’s Minimization Theorem