Eras of medicine

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  • The Twenty-First Century Physician: Expanding Frontiers The Era of Genomics In the spring of 2003, the complete sequencing of the human genome was announced, officially ushering in the genomic era. However, even before this landmark accomplishment, the practice of medicine had been evolving as a result of the insights gained from an understanding of the human genome as well as the genomes of a wide variety of microbes, whose genetic sequences were becoming widely available as a result of the breathtaking advances in sequencing techniques and informatics.

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  • To better understand the contemporary world, the world of innovation and technology, the science should try to synthesize and assimilate the social science and humanities in the development of our civilization.

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  • The American Holistic Nurses’ Association (AHNA) has joined with the authors and contributors of Holistic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice, Fourth Edition, to develop further the knowledge base for holistic nursing and delineate the essence of contemporary nursing. The purposes of this book are threefold: (1) to expand an understanding of healing and the nurse as an instrument of healing; (2) to explore the unity and relatedness of nurses, clients, and others; and (3) to develop caring-healing interventions to strengthen the whole person....

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  • This book applies pharmacology to nursing practice, with the overall aim of enhancing patient care. The main focus of the book is adverse drug reactions, and the implications for patient monitoring. Adverse drug reactions account for around 4% of UK hospital admissions. Over 70% of these problems are avoidable (Pirmohamed et al. 2004): the monitoring of prescribed medications has long been a cause for concern (Royal College of General Practitioners 1985, DH 2000, Audit Commission 2001, Committee of Public Accounts 2006).

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  • In 1970, Henry L. Nadler and Albert B. Gerbie helped usher in the era of prenatal genetic diagnosis in their landmark paper ‘‘Role of amniocentesis in the interuterine detection of genetic disorders’’ (N Engl J Med 1970;282:596-9). Since that time, advances in genetics and perinatal medicine have occurred at an amazing pace, allowing physicians to detect and treat genetic disorders in utero with increasing success. There has also been an escalating demand by the public for translational medicine where discoveries in the laboratory are rapidly brought to the bedside.

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  • In an era of spectacular medical advances, it is easy to become immune to the announcement of new “breakthroughs”. This in no way lessens the remarkable achievements of diagnostic imaging over the last few years in which the field of Nuclear Medicine has shared. To the outsider the specialty of Nuclear Medicine can appear confusing and esoteric since it operates in a world of invisible radioactive emissions, nuclear decay charts and obscure elements.

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  • The availability of extensive genomic information and content has spawned an era of high-throughput screening that is generating large sets of func-tional genomic data. In particular, the need to understand the biochemical wiring within a cell has introduced novel approaches to map the intricate networks of biological interactions arising from the interactions of proteins.

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  • This book considers diagnosis and treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms. It addresses vascular and cardiothoracic surgeons and interventional radiologists, but also anyone engaged in vascular medicine. The book focuses amongst other things on operations in the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. Surgical procedures in this area have received increasing attention in the last few years and have been subjected to several modifications.

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  • The era of pharmacology, the science concerned with the understanding of drug action, began only about 150 years ago when Rudolf Buchheim established the first pharmacological laboratory in Dorpat (now, Tartu, Estonia). Since then, pharmacology has always been a lively discipline with “open borders”, reaching out not only to other life sciences such as physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and clinical medicine, but also to chemistry and physics.

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  • Internal Medicine is designed to provide the busy clinician with precisely the information needed where and when it is needed. The Associate Editors and contributors are internationally recognized authorities, and they have organized the content specifically so as to convey the essentials necessary for diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management, treatment and follow-up. Many topics start with a “What To Do First” heading which brings the collective experience and guidance of top experts to bear on the “up front” considerations the clinician must face.

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  • To discuss embryological thought in seventeenth-century England is to discuss the main currents in embryological thought at a time when those currents were both numerous and shifting. Like every other period, the seventeenth century was one of transition. It was an era of explosive growth in scientific ideas and techniques, suffused with a creative urge engendered by new philosophical insights and the excitement of discovery.

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  • The past several decades have seen dramatic advances in understanding the etiopathogenesis of glomerulonephritis. The science of renal disease has progressed steadily from a discipline focused largely on whole organ physiology, through successive eras of cell and molecular biology, several omics (proteomics, genomics) and now into molecular mapping and personalized medicine.

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  • The modern era in sexual medicine started in the 1970s when a few devoted pioneers and visionaries began to revolutionize our thinking and understanding in this field. Prior to that time, sexual dysfunctions in men, particularly erectile disorders, were thought to be purely psychogenic or in rare cases caused by testosterone deficiency. Treatment of sexual disorders was considered to be predominantly the business of sextherapists or rarely of endocrinologists.

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  • Estrogen is known to influence glucose homeostasis but the role of estrogen receptors in muscle glucose metabolism is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the two estrogen receptors, ERa and ERb and their influence on regulation of GLUT4, and its associated structural protein, caveolin-1, in mouse muscle. ERaand ERbare co-expressed in the nuclei of most muscle cells and their levels were not affected by absence of estradiol (in aromatase knockout, ArKO, mice).

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  • The escalating prevalence of obesity is one of the most pressing health concerns of the modern era, yet existing medicines to combat this global pandemic are disappointingly limited in terms of safety and effectiveness. The inadequacy of currently available therapies for obesity has made new drug development crucial.

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  • As new species emerged and evolved into disparate new forms, other species became extinct. And just as the origin of species and disparity form large-scale patterns, extinctions have formed patterns of their own. One of those patterns is illustrated in . It shows how the extinction rate has gone up and down over the past 540 million years. A few pulses of extinctions stand out above the others. These mass extinctions were truly tremendous cataclysms. The biggest of all, which occurred 250 million years ago, claimed 55% of all gen- era.

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  • In the postgenomic era it is essential that protein sequences are annotated correctly in order to help in the assignment of their putative functions. Over 1300 proteins in current pro-tein sequence databases are predicted to contain a PAS domainbaseduponaminoacid sequence alignments.Oneof theproblemswith the current annotationof thePASdomain is that this domain exhibits limited similarity at the amino acid sequence level.

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  • We have defined thein vivo andin vitro metabolic fate of internalized chol-era toxin (CT) in the endosomal apparatus of rat liver. In vivo, CT was internalized and accumulated in endosomes where it underwent degrada-tion in a pH-dependent manner. In vitro proteolysis of CT using an endo-somal lysate required an acidic pH and was sensitive to pepstatin A, an inhibitor of aspartic acid proteases.

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  • Era is a highly conserved GTPase essential for bacterial growth. The N-terminal part of Era contains a conserved GTPase domain, whereas the C-terminal part of the protein contains anRNA- andmembrane-binding domain, theKH domain. To investigate whether the binding of Era to 16S rRNA and membrane requires its GTPase activity and whether the GTPase domain is essential for these acti-vities, the N- and C-terminal parts of the Streptococ-cus pneumoniaeEra –Era-N(aminoacids 1–185) andEra-C (amino acids 141–299), respectively – were expressed and purified. ...

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  • Now, under homogeneity these expectations of others’ expectations collapsed into single, shared, objectively determined expectations. Under heterogeneity, however, not only is there no objective means by which others’ dividend expectations can be known, but attempts to eliminate the other unknowns, the price expectations, merely lead to the repeated iteration of subjective expectations of subjective expectations (or equivalently, subjective priors on others’ subjective priors)—an infinite regress in subjectivity.

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